1 Samuel 17:1-58 - The Story of David and Goliath: Defeating the Oppressor of God's People

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A.                 The war launched by the Philistines and the defiance of Goliath (v.1-11): Confronting an aggressive, frightening enemy (v.1-11)

Here we see David; a teenager alone, facing a danger so horrible that the bravest men of Israel would not face but fled in fear.  No one else faced a creature like Goliath, because Goliath was no ordinary man, the book of 2 Samuel tells us that Goliath had four brothers, one of whom had six fingers and six toes.  Obviously Goliath’s family was out of the ordinary.  They were not of mankind’s normal genetic stock.  They were human alright, but there was something different about them.  Scripture tells us that Goliath was six cubits and a span in height – almost ten feet tall!  This guy would bump his head on a basketball goal. 

Goliath was remarkable in other ways to: According to the rabbinical commentary, he was a “champion” for ten years.  That meant he had killed at least one hundred men a year for ten years.  Even his armament was not ordinary.  His spear was the length of a weaver’s beam – 14 feet!  Its tip weighed as much as a college shot put – 16 pounds.  He wielded a guided missile!  Most of us could not even pick up the canin mail he wore – 148 pounds of it!  Think how intimidating it would be to have this guy towering over you!

And yet no young man has ever attacked a problem with greater vigor that David did.  When Goliath came out to David, the giant said: "The Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?”  And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.  The Philistine also said to David, “Come to me, and I will give your flesh to the birds of the sky and the beasts of the field.”(1 Samuel 17:43-44).  David answered that he was coming against Goliath in the name of the true God (1 Samuel 17:45-50).

One of the most famous stories in the entire Bible, the story of David and Goliath, teaches us a great lesson which is: those who will trust God and call upon Him for power and help, victory and triumph are promised to the person.  David teaches us that we can defeat any oppressor and conquer any enemy through the power of God.

1.                  The Philistines invaded Israel at Shochoh in Judah (v.1-3).

a)                  The invasion: Saul and his army countered in the valley of Elah (v.2)

b)                  The battle lines: The armies faced each other on opposite hills surrounding the valley (v.3).

(1)                 Picture the scene: there were the Israelite forces, thousands and thousands of soldiers, battalion after battalion, standing in their battle lines.  Opposite them was an invading army of thousands who bitterly hated the Israelites and sought to enslave and subject them to serve the Philistine nation.  The Israelite forces knew they were in a fight for their very survival.  A spirit of apprehension and fear was bound to be gripping their hearts.  But an even greater fear was about to surge through their veins, a paralyzing fear.

2.                  The Philistines sent forth a giant warrior named Goliath who issued a hostile challenge to the Israelites (v.4-10)

a)                  His size: Over 9 feet tall approximately 9ft. 9 inches (v.4).

b)                  His armor (v.5-6)

(1)                 A bronze helmet (v.5a)
(2)                 A coat of scale armor that weighed 125 pounds (v.5b)
(3)                 A pair of bronze leggings (v.6)

c)                  His weapon: A bronze spear with a tip that weighed 15-16 pounds (v.7a)

d)                  His shield: An armor-bearer carried it before him (v.7b).

e)                  His defiant mockery: Why did the Israelites line up to fight when not a single soldier would face Goliath?  (v.8a)

f)                   His hostile challenge & aggressive proposal (v.8-10).

(1)                 Give me a man.  In other words, Goliath says the issue would be settled by the representative of each side.  Here we get another glimpse into the Bible.  The issue is not the Devil against the church but against God.  It’s Satan vs. Jesus.   
(2)                 The issue has already been settled by our Representative (Jesus Christ)!

(3)                 David Is A Picture Of The Lord Jesus Christ, Who Overcame Satan At Calvary:

Jesus overcame the Devil: "Having disarmed principalities and powers, He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them in it." (Colossians 2:15, NKJV)

Jesus overcame the flesh: "knowing this, that our old man was crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves of sin. For he who has died has been freed from sin." (Romans 6:6-7, NKJV)

Jesus overcame the world: "In the world you will have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world.”" (John 16:33, NKJV)

Jesus overcame death: “that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil," (Hebrews 2:14)… "O Death, where is your sting? O Hades, where is your victory?” The sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." (1 Corinthians 15:55-57, NKJV)

(4)                 David Is A Picture Of Child Of God Who Overcomes by Faith & Trust in Jesus:

John writes in his first epistle: "For whatever is born of God overcomes the world. And this is the victory that has overcome the world— our faith.  Who is he who overcomes the world, but he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?" (1 John 5:4-5)… "You are of God, little children, and have overcome them, because He who is in you is greater than he who is in the world." (1 John 4:4, NKJV)

(5)                 If You Don’t Trust God, You Don’t Know Him Well Enough.

The more you know God—through studying His Word, meditating on His majestic person, and praying to Him—the more you will trust Him. If you love Him with all your heart, soul, mind, and strength, and believe He is who He claims to be, and that all His promises are true, you will stand in the place of greatest blessing.

(a)                 This kind of faith or living hope can enable believers to rejoice even when they have been grieved by various trials (1Peter 1:6-9).
(b)                James says the trials themselves are occasions for joy (1:2-7)

(6)                 The Continual Conquest – Daily Overcoming Which We Have

Paul writes: Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us. (Romans 8:37)… Now thanks be to God who always leads us in triumph in Christ (2 Corinthians 2:14) & … who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. (1 Corinthians 15:57 NKJV)… who gave Himself for our sins, that He might deliver us from this present evil age (Galatians 1:3-4 NKJV)

Remember, our boasting is not in ourselves, “God forbid that I should boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. (Galatians 6:14 )

And remember, “Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. (Romans 12:21 NKJV)

3.                  Similarities to Our Lord Jesus Christ and David.

a)                  David was sanctified by the Spirit (Sam16:13). 

(1)                 Before he took up this battle he had been anointed by the Spirit of God. 

After Samuel anointed him, we are told "The Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon David from that day forward." (1 Samuel 16:13, NASB95)

(2)                 Our Lord Jesus Christ, before He took up the battle on our behalf, He was anointed by the Spirit of God:

Luke writes that "After being baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove and lighting on Him, and behold, a voice out of the heavens said, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.”" (Matthew 3:16-17, NASB95)

b)                  David was sent by his father to the battleground (1Sam.17:17).

(1)                 David was sent from keeping the sheep, from the place of isolation, sent into public conflict.
(2)                 It is said of our Lord Jesus Christ that “the Father sent the Son to be the Savior of the World” (1John 4:14).  

c)                  David was scorned by his brothers (1Sam.17:28).

(1)                 When David arrived on the scene he was rejected by his own brothers.
(2)                 What about our Lord Jesus Christ?  How was he accepted when he came to His own?

John writes saying "He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him.” (John 1:11, NASB95)

Isaiah says that "He was despised and forsaken of men, A man of sorrows and acquainted with grief" (Isaiah 53:3, NASB95)

d)                  David was strengthened by his past experiences (1Sam.17:32-37).

(1)                 Saul challenged his credentials, saying that he could not go and fight against this Philistine, David told Saul of his past experiences when he kept his fathers sheep:

David said to Saul, “Let no man’s heart fail on account of him; your servant will go and fight with this Philistine.” Then Saul said to David, “You are not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him; for you are but a youth while he has been a warrior from his youth.” But David said to Saul, “Your servant was tending his father’s sheep. When a lion or a bear came and took a lamb from the flock, I went out after him and attacked him, and rescued it from his mouth; and when he rose up against me, I seized him by his beard and struck him and killed him. “Your servant has killed both the lion and the bear; and this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, since he has taunted the armies of the living God.” And David said, “The Lord who delivered me from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear, He will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine.” And Saul said to David, “Go, and may the Lord be with you.” " (1 Samuel 17:32-37, NASB95)

(2)                 Before our Lord Jesus Christ went to Calvary and fought to save us from sin and hell, He had a private conflict face-to-face with the devil in the wilderness, and defeated him there. 

e)                  David was sustained by the Word of God (1Sam.17:45, 47).

(1)                 I like David’s defiance against Goliath:

David said to the Philistine, “You come to me with a sword, a spear, and a javelin, but I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have taunted…"  "and that all this assembly may know that the Lord does not deliver by sword or by spear; for the battle is the Lord’s and He will give you into our hands.” (1 Samuel 17:45, 47, NASB95)

(2)                 Our Lord Jesus Christ triumphed over Satan in the Wilderness by the Word of God.  In each of the temptations, Jesus fought back with “it is written” (v.4, 7, 10).  

4.                  The soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David (1Sam18:1-3).

a)                  We see this after the battle had been won. 

(1)                 David fought that battle, not for himself, but on behalf of Israel.  His victory was there victory!
(2)                 Jonathan watched the battle take place & as he watched his soul was knit to David’s. 
(3)                 Jesus Christ went out to battle for us at Calvary.  He shed His blood for our redemption and dealt wit the power of sin in that battle on the cross.
(4)                 Shouldn’t our response be the same as Jonathans?
(5)                 When you look back at the cross and see the battle that took place on our behalf, does your soul and whole being become knit to the Savior?

b)                  Jonathan gave David his robe, armor, sword, bow and belt (1am.18:4).

(1)                 Jonathan was giving away all the carnal weapons of Saul’s armor that he might cast himself in faith upon David.  In other words, Jonathan surrendered to David.
(2)                 Have you learned that the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but might in God (2Cor.10:3-5)?

5.                  The impact of Goliath's appearance & defiance paralyzed the army (v.11).

a)                  Enemy after enemy confronts us as we walk throughout life.

(1)                 Sometimes these enemies are defiant and frightening, and we feel overpowered and overwhelmed.  These enemies may be…
(a)                 people who ridicule, mock, oppose, bypass, ignore, abuse, assault, curse, lie, or steal
(b)                circumstances that create all kinds of trials, temptations, accidents, disease, financial difficulty, depression, discouragement, purposelessness, or the death of a loved one
(2)                 Enemies that overwhelm us can be persons or trials or temptations.  As we walk throughout life we will face enemies, defiant and frightening enemies, who will seek to oppress and defeat us.  Listen to what the Word of God says about our conflict with these enemies:

Listen to what Peter says about our enemy the Devil: "Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil walks about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.  Resist him, steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same sufferings are experienced by your brotherhood in the world.  But may the God of all grace, who called us to His eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you.”  (1 Peter 5:8-10, NKJV)

Remember what the Lord said to Simon Peter: "The Lord said, “Simon, Simon!  Indeed, Satan has asked for you, that he may sift you as wheat.  But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren.”  (Luke 22:31-32, NKJV)

Paul writes about our enemy: the works of darkness overtaking us: "And do this, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep; for now our salvation is nearer than when we first believed.  The night is far spent, the day is at hand.  Therefore let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light.”  (Romans 13:11-12, NKJV)

What about the enemy of losing hope?  Paul writes saying "But let us who are of the day be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and as a helmet the hope of salvation. For God did not appoint us to wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ," (1 Thessalonians 5:8-9)

We must never try and fight our battles with fleshly weapons, Paul writes: "For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty in God for pulling down strongholds, casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ," (2 Corinthians 10:4-5, NKJV)

Paul concludes in Ephesians saying: "Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord and in the power of His might.  Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.  For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.  Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand.”  (Ephesians 6:10-13, NKJV)

(3)                 Even though these were the people of God, they were in bondage to fear.  God has not given us a spirit of fear (2Tim.1:7).  

B.                The Family of David and His Duties as a Youth (v.12-15). 

David was a very responsible, obedient young boy.  David was a young shepherd boy whom his father entrusted the sheep to.   

1.                  The elderly father Jesse (v.12).   

a)                  Was and Ephrathite (v.12a). 

(1)                 David's father was Jesse, an Ephrathite, one of the important families or clans in the tribe of Judah (1 Samuel 17:12; 1 Chronicles 2:19; 4:4).

b)                  Was from Bethlehem (v.12b)

c)                  Had eight sons (v.12c)

2.                  The three oldest brothers (v.13)

a)                  Were soldiers (v.13).

(1)                 His three oldest sons had enlisted in the army and were serving under Saul's command in the war with the Philistines.  The names of these sons are given: the firstborn, Eliab; the second, Abinadab; and the third, Shammah (1 Samuel 17:13).

3.                  The duties of David, the youngest son (v.14-15).

a)                  Served Saul (v.15)

b)                  Tended his father's sheep in between (v.15 cf. 1 Samuel 16:11)

(1)                 So David's duties were during the days after his enlistment by Saul to serve in his court: he went back and forth between working for Saul and tending his father's sheep in Bethlehem (1 Samuel 17:15; 16:11).
(2)                 As the baby of the family, David had very little status, but he was faithful to his father and to the Lord.  Matthew 25:21 illustrates David’s life:

David began as a servant and became a ruler; he was faithful with a few sheep & then inherited a whole nation.  “Well done, good and faithful servant; you were faithful over a few things, I will make you ruler over many things.  Enter into the joy of your lord.’”  (Matthew 25:21, NKJV)

(3)                 Apparently, he was not yet twenty years of age, the minimum age for military service in Israel according to (Numbers 1:3).

c)                  The Lesson for us is that of Responsible Service.

(1)                 No matter what the task is—carrying out the trash, making up the bed, working at our employment, fighting a war, or serving the Lord—we must be responsible. 
(2)                 We must be diligent and faithful, wholeheartedly performing the task or work.  This is the teaching of God's Holy Word:

Paul writes to not be "Lagging in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord;" (Romans 12:11, NKJV)

Be fatihful to what God has called you to do: "Moreover it is required in stewards that one be found faithful.”  (1 Corinthians 4:2, NKJV)

Know that what you do does not go unnoticed by the Lord: "Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.”  (1 Corinthians 15:58, NKJV)

Whatever you do, do as though you were doing it for God: "And whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through Him." (Colossians 3:17, NKJV)

MAKE SURE YOUR SERVICE IS TO GOD AND NOT TO MAN: "And whatever you do, do it heartily, as to the Lord and not to men," (Colossians 3:23, NKJV)

C.                The Righteous Anger Of David Over Goliath's Defiance And Israel's Fear (v.16-30). 

1.                  The 40-day defiance of Goliath (v.16).

a)                  Every morning and evening Goliath presented himself.

(1)                 Goliath stepped forth into the valley below mocking, ridiculing, and taunting the Israelites.  Gripped by fear, Saul and his troops were shaken and terrorized. 
(2)                 They became a paralyzed army.  No man, not even Saul who stood a head taller than any other Israelite, dared to step forth to engage Goliath in hand-to-hand combat.  A standoff between the two armies had developed.  But note what was taking place behind the scenes.

2.                  The very special duty assigned to David by his father (v.17-19).

a)                  To take supplies to the front lines (v.17-18a).

(1)                 For his three brothers (v.17).
(2)                 For the commander of their unit (v.18a).

b)                  To check on his brothers' welfare (v.18b).

3.                  The obedience, faithfulness of David to his father's instructions (v.20-22).

a)                  He left early morning, leaving the sheep with another shepherd (v.20a).

b)                  He arrived just as the troops were going out to their daily battle positions (v.20b).

c)                  He took the provisions to the supply officer (v.22a).

d)                  He ran to the front lines to his brothers (v.22b).

4.                  The first sighting of Goliath by David (v.23-24).

a)                  He saw Goliath step out from the Philistine ranks and shout out his terrorizing, hostile challenge (v.23).

b)                  He witnessed the fear and the utter panic of the Israelite forces (v.24).


5.                  The reward offered by Saul to any soldier who killed Goliath (v.25).

a)                  Great wealth (v.25).

b)                  His daughter in marriage (v.25).

c)                  Tax exemption for his entire family (v.25).


6.                  The surge of courage aroused in David over Israel's fear and Goliath's defiance (v.26-27).

a)                  David demonstrated a courageous anger (v.26).

(1)                 At the insult, hostility hurled at Israel by Goliath (v.26a).
(2)                 At the defiance, insult against "the living God" (v.26b).  By insulting the army of Israel, Goliath was insulting and defying God Himself.  This disturbed David deeply as he stood there listening to such insults and curses against the Living God.
(a)                 Suddenly a surge of courage was aroused within the heart of David.  He asked the men standing near him what would be done for the man who stepped forth and killed this Philistine, stopping this reproach, this abuse upon Israel.
(b)                In anger, he asked just who this uncircumcised, pagan Philistine thought he was, that he should defy the armies of the Living God.

b)                  The soldiers shared with David the promises of Saul to the man who killed Goliath (v.27).

(1)                 In response to David's question, the soldiers standing nearby spelled out the reward that Saul had promised to give to the soldier who killed Goliath.


7.                  The irritation, jealous anger of David's oldest brother Eliab (v.28-30)

a)                  He was jealous of the courage shown by David (v.28a).

(1)                 David was the youngest brother, not even old enough to enter military service; yet here he was, demonstrating a bold and courageous anger that suggested he could face Goliath. Obviously, Eliab was jealous of the courage shown by David.  Consequently, he made three accusations against David:

b)                  He made three accusations against David (v.28b).

(1)                 Accused him of pride, a haughty spirit (v.28b).
(2)                 Accused him of neglecting his duty (v.28b).
(3)                 Accused him of a wicked curiosity, coming to watch the battle (v.28b).
(a)                 Keep in mind that Samuel had rejected Eliab as future king of Israel and had appointed David instead, and the older brother had witnessed the secret anointing (16:6-13).
(b)                Moreover, David had already been taken into the court of Saul to serve the king. An irritating jealousy had obviously captured the heart of the older brother.
(c)                 As a result, witnessing the bold, courageous anger of David against Goliath only deepened the jealousy within Eliab.

c)                  David's firm response (v.29-30).

(1)                 The cause, issue being discussed is important (v.29).
(2)                 David turned to others and continued to discuss the issue of Goliath's defiance and Saul's promises (v.30).

d)                  Bold couraage is needed as we walk in this life.

(1)                 Shrinking back and running from enemies will only lead to humiliation, defeat, destruction, and sometimes even death.  All kinds of enemies will confront and threaten us as we walk throughout life:
(a)                 trials and temptations
(b)                unfavorable circumstances and difficult problems
(c)                 persecution and hatred
(d)                hardship and misfortune
(e)                 criminals and terrorists
(f)                  mockers and slanderers
(g)                evil men and warmongers

(2)                 We must therefore be noble and stir up a spirit of courage and boldness.  A bold, courageous spirit that depends upon the Lord will conquer all enemies and live a victorious life. This is the promise of God's Holy Word:

Paul says to "Watch, stand fast in the faith, be brave, be strong.”  (1 Corinthians 16:13, NKJV)

The Lord is our strenght and power: "Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord and in the power of His might." (Ephesians 6:10, NKJV)

Don’t be afraid of your enemies: "Only let your conduct be worthy of the gospel of Christ, so that whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your affairs, that you stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel, and not in any way terrified by your adversaries, which is to them a proof of perdition, but to you of salvation, and that from God.”  (Philippians 1:27-28, NKJV)

God gives us strenghening grace: "You therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus.”  (2 Timothy 2:1, NKJV)

We are to "Be strong and of good courage, do not fear nor be afraid of them; for the Lord your God, He is the One who goes with you.  He will not leave you nor forsake you.”  (Deuteronomy 31:6, NKJV)

Joshua himself said: “Do not be afraid, nor be dismayed; be strong and of good courage, for thus the Lord will do to all your enemies against whom you fight.”" (Joshua 10:25, NKJV)

"Therefore be very courageous to keep and to do all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses, lest you turn aside from it to the right hand or to the left, and lest you go among these nations, these who remain among you. You shall not make mention of the name of their gods, nor cause anyone to swear by them; you shall not serve them nor bow down to them, but you shall hold fast to the Lord your God, as you have done to this day." (Joshua 23:6-8, NKJV)

"Be of good courage, and let us be strong for our people and for the cities of our God. And may the Lord do what is good in His sight.”" (1 Chronicles 19:13, NKJV)

"Then you will prosper, if you take care to fulfill the statutes and judgments with which the Lord charged Moses concerning Israel. Be strong and of good courage; do not fear nor be dismayed." (1 Chronicles 22:13, NKJV)

"And David said to his son Solomon, “Be strong and of good courage, and do it; do not fear nor be dismayed, for the Lord God—my God—will be with you. He will not leave you nor forsake you, until you have finished all the work for the service of the house of the Lord." (1 Chronicles 28:20, NKJV)

"The Lord is my light and my salvation; Whom shall I fear? The Lord is the strength of my life; Of whom shall I be afraid? When the wicked came against me To eat up my flesh, My enemies and foes, They stumbled and fell. Though an army may encamp against me, My heart shall not fear; Though war may rise against me, In this I will be confident. " (Psalm 27:1-3, NKJV)

"I will say of the Lord, “He is my refuge and my fortress; My God, in Him I will trust.” Surely He shall deliver you from the snare of the fowler And from the perilous pestilence. He shall cover you with His feathers, And under His wings you shall take refuge; His truth shall be your shield and buckler. You shall not be afraid of the terror by night, Nor of the arrow that flies by day, Nor of the pestilence that walks in darkness, Nor of the destruction that lays waste at noonday. " (Psalm 91:2-6, NKJV)

"The Lord is on my side; I will not fear. What can man do to me? " (Psalm 118:6, NKJV)

D.                The Utter Trust Of David In God: His power to deliver (v.31-39)

1.                  Saul heard of David's courage and outrage (v.31).

a)                  Saul summoned David.

(1)                 After forty days, and having no one else with the courage to step forward, Saul wanted to talk with this young man who was showing such bold anger against the defiance of Goliath.  Thus, Saul summoned David to the royal command quarters.

2.                  David demonstrated strong confidence before Saul (v.32).

a)                  Declared he would fight Goliath (v.32).

(1)                 David demonstrated a strong confidence, declaring that “no mans heart should fail.”  He personally would go and fight Goliath.
(2)                 David had the faith that reminds me of Jonathan back in chapter 14.  Let’s look at this passage:

b)                  For nothing restrains the LORD from saving by many or by few (1Sam.14:6b).

(1)                 What wise courage in God!  Many in Israel probably believed this as a theological truth.  But few believed it enough to do something.  Illustration of a bomb threat! 
(2)                 Jonathan’s Faith Was Demonstrated By His Works. 

JAMES WRITES "What does it profit, my brethren, if someone says he has faith but does not have works?  Can faith save him…? "Faith by itself, if it does not have works, is dead." (James 2:14, 17)

"But someone will say, “You have faith, and I have works.” Show me your faith without your works, and I will show you my faith by my works." (James 2:18, NKJV)

"Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered Isaac his son on the altar?  "Do you see that faith was working together with his works, and by works faith was made perfect?" (James 2:21,22)

"For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also." (James 2:26, NKJV)

(3)                 Nothing restrains the LORD! Do we really believe it?  We often think that our God is Too Small. We often feel that God is restrained in one way or another. In reality, the only thing that could be said to restrain God is our unbelief: 

IT SAYS OF ONE TIME IN JESUS’ MINISTRY, "He did not do many mighty works there because of their unbelief.”  (Matthew 13:58, NKJV)

(4)                 God’s power is never restrained, but His will may be restrained by our unbelief.  He may choose not to act until we partner with Him in trust.  God had a trusting partner in Jonathan! 
(5)                 By many or few: What did it matter?
(a)                  Who cares about the odds or the point spread when God is on your side?  The odds were already against Israel.  Did it matter if it was a million-to-one or a thousand-to-one?  Numbers or odds did not restrain God, but unbelief could.  Jonathan never read the New Testament, but he had a Romans 8:31 heart: If God be for us, who can be against us? 
(6)                 Notice where Jonathan had the emphasis.  He had little faith in himself, but great faith in God.
(a)                 It wasn’t “I can win a great victory with God’s help.”  It was “God can win a great victory through even me.” 

3.                  Saul rejected David's offer (v.33).

a)                  You are not able to… you are only a youth.

(1)                 You can’t do this, he is trained and you are not.  There will be people in our lives who will tell you that you can’t do this or that.  The enemy wants us to listen to them, but listen to God!

4.                  David humbly but strongly argued that he had experience that could defeat Goliath (v.34-35)

a)                  He was a shepherd who had faced bears and lions (v.34)

b)                  He had actually seized the creatures and clubbed them to death (v.35)

5.                  David boldly declared his confidence and trust in God (v.36-37a)

a)                  The unbelieving Goliath would be nothing more than the lion and the bear: Because of the "living God" (v.36).

b)                  The LORD would deliver him from the hand of Goliath-just as He had delivered him from the paws of the lion and the bear (v.37a)

6.                  Saul finally agreed to let David fight and blessed him (v.37b-39)

a)                  Saul demonstrated a trust in the armor of men: He gave David his armor and sword (v.38)

b)                  David felt uncomfortable, burdened down with the armor: He took them off (v.39)

E.                 The victory of David over Goliath: God's power to overcome the oppressor of His people (v.40-58)

1.                  The weapons of David-the weapons of a shepherd: A staff, sling, and five stones (v.40)

2.                  The strategy and advance of Goliath (v.41-44)

a)                  He advanced with his shield-bearer in front (v.41)

b)                  He mocked and ridiculed David (v.42-43a)

(1)                 Because David was only a boy (v.42)
(2)                 Because David carried only a staff (v.43a)

c)                  He cursed David by the name of his false gods (v.43b)

d)                  He shouted a boastful threat: That he would kill David and feed his flesh to the birds and beasts (v.44)


3.                  The strategy and advance of David (v.45-49)

a)                  He shouted out the difference between himself and Goliath (v.45)

(1)                 Goliath trusted in his man-made weapons (v.45a)
(2)                 David trusted in the LORD Almighty (v.45b)

b)                  He shouted out that the victory would be the LORD's (v.46)

(1)                 That the LORD would enable him to strike Goliath down (v.46a)
(2)                 That the LORD would give a great victory over the Philistine army (v.46b)

c)                  He shouted out the great impact upon the whole world (v.47)

(1)                 That there is "a living God" (v.47)
(2)                 That it is not by military might that the LORD saves (v.47)
(3)                 That it is the LORD Himself who gives victory (v.47)

d)                  He suddenly began to run toward Goliath, zigzagging and maneuvering all about (v.48)

e)                  He rapidly swirled his sling shot with ferocious, deadly force toward Goliath: The stone sank into Goliath's forehead and he fell facedown (v.49)


4.                  The stunning victory of David over Goliath (v.50-51)

a)                  David triumphed with just a sling and a stone-without a sword (v.50)

b)                  David ran over and stood over Goliath: Stripped him of his sword and cut off his head (v.51a)

c)                  The result: The Philistine army was stricken with panic and fled (v.51b)


5.                  The crushing victory of Israel and Judah over the Philistine army (v.52-53)

a)                  They chased the Philistines all the way to their coastal cities, Gath and Ekron (v.52a)

b)                  They executed every soldier they were able to catch (v.52b)

c)                  They returned and plundered the Philistine camp (v.53)


6.                  The foreshadow of David's military spirit (v.54)

a)                  He hung Goliath's head in Jerusalem to warn all (v.54a)

b)                  He kept Goliath's weapons (v.54b)


7.                  The investigation of David by Saul (v.55-58)

a)                  Saul had asked Abner who David was as David marched out to fight Goliath: Abner did not know (v.55)

b)                  Saul charged Abner to find out (v.56)

c)                  Abner brought David to Saul right after the combat was over: David was still holding Goliath's head (v.57)

d)                  Saul asked about David's family: David identified himself as the son of Jesse (v.58)

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