"THE GENEALOGY OF JESUS PART II"

Christmas 2023  •  Sermon  •  Submitted   •  Presented
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Proposition - Over the next three weeks we are going to look at the Genealogy of Matthew chapter 1. We will see how God uses ordinary people to accomplish extraordinary things for His name sake.
Interrogative question - How is Christ affecting your daily life?
Group 1 Abraham through David - 14 names (compare Genesis 12-50; 1 Chronicles 2:3-15; Ruth 4:18-22) - Theocracy
Group 2 Solomon through Jeconiah - 14 names (Compare 1 Chronicles 3:10-14) - Monarchy
Group 3 Salathiel through Jesus - 13 names - Hierarchy
KINGS OF ISRAEL - NORTHERN KINGDOM
Jeroboam I, rebellious, 931—910 BC Nadab, bad, 910—909 BC Baasha, wicked, 909—886 BC Elah, evil, 886—885 BC Zimri, sinful, 885 BC Tibni, iniquitous, 885—880 BC Omri (overlap), extra bad, 885—874 BC Ahab, the worst to that point, 874—853 BC Ahaziah, disobedient, 853—852 BC Joram/Jehoram, mostly rotten, 852—841 BC Jehu, not good but better than the rest, 841—814 BC Jehoahaz, noncompliant, 814—798 BC Joash, wayward, 798—782 BC Jeroboam II (overlap), badly behaved, 793—753 BC Zechariah, abysmal, 753 BC Shallum, full of vice, 752 BC Menahem, horrible, 752—742 BC Pekahiah, idolatrous, 742—740 BC Pekah (overlap), awful, 752—732 BC Hoshea, appalling, 732—722 BC KINGS OF JUDAH - SOUTHERN KINGDOM Rehoboam, mostly bad, 931—913 BC Abijah, mostly perverted, 913—911 BC Asa, good, 911—870 BC Jehoshaphat (overlap), righteous, 873—848 BC Jehoram/Joram (overlap), terrible, 853—841 BC Ahaziah, bad, 841 BC Athaliah (queen), devilish, 841—835 BC Joash/Jehoash, mostly virtuous, 835—796 BC Amaziah, mostly wholesome, 796—767 BC Uzziah/Azariah (overlap), mostly respectable, 790—739 BC Jotham (overlap), worthy, 750—731 BC Ahaz, heinous, 735—715 BC Hezekiah, the best, 715—686 BC Manasseh, depraved until he repented at the end, 695—642 BC Amon, treacherous, 642—640 BC Josiah, great, 640—609 BC Jehoahaz, dreadful, 609 BC Jehoiakim, degenerate, 609—597 BC Jehoiachin, frightful, 597 BC Zedekiah, foolish, 597—586 BC
Between Uzziah and Jotham (Matt 1:9), the first three are missing: Ahaziah, Jehoash, and Amaziah (1 Chr 3:11–12; 2 Kgs 8:16–15:7). Between Josiah and Jechoniah (Matt 1:11), there was Eliakim (1 Chr 6:3–15). In group three, Matthew counts 14 generations, but analysis reveals only 13. When one compares the list to the similar period of time in Luke there are far fewer names (see below for an explicit comparison with Luke). Anderson, K. G. (2016). Jesus, Genealogy of. In J. D. Barry, D. Bomar, D. R. Brown, R. Klippenstein, D. Mangum, C. Sinclair Wolcott, L. Wentz, E. Ritzema, & W. Widder (Eds.), The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Lexham Press.
The omission of names in ancient tribal genealogies is not rare (Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, 75). However, there are a number of suggestions for the cause of such omissions:
•The kings omitted in Group Two were bad kings and purposely excluded. However, other bad kings are included in the list—most notably Manasseh. Some have pointed out that unlike Ahaziah, Jehoash, and Amaziah, Manasseh repented of his sins (Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, 81–84; Carson, “Matthew,” 67).
•The omission of these names was accidental. It was perhaps caused by the similarity of Greek forms of the names of Uzziah (Azariah) and Ahaziah—“Joram was the father of Uzziah” is a mistake for “Joram was the father of Ahaziah”. Other instances of possible confusion exist: Asaph for King Asa and Amos for King Amon. If Matthew used a preexisting record as a source, it’s possible that those Greek lists already contained errors (Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, 81–84).
•A double count of Jeconiah. This theory points to the fact that Eliakim (Jehoiakim) was omitted between Josiah and Jeconiah. Thus, the second group runs from Solomon through Jehoiakim and the third group of 14 runs from Jeconiah through Jesus (Nolland, Luke 1–9:20, 86).
•Raymond Brown suggests that the first group was one that covered the premonarchic period and was similar to the lists found in Ruth 4:18–22 and 1 Chr 2:5. Matthew noticed the list from Abraham to David had 14 names and 14 generations. The second group covered the monarchic and early postmonarchic period; it might have been a popular genealogy of the house of David and kings who ruled in Judah. His list may have been accidentally abbreviated as it circulated. In the postexilic group, 14 names emerge if Joseph and Jesus are added (Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, 69–70). Anderson, K. G. (2016). Jesus, Genealogy of. In J. D. Barry, D. Bomar, D. R. Brown, R. Klippenstein, D. Mangum, C. Sinclair Wolcott, L. Wentz, E. Ritzema, & W. Widder (Eds.), The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Lexham Press.

1. Solomon

United Kingdom 1 Sam 9:26–31:13; 2 Sam 1:1–24:25; 1 Kings 1:1–11:43; 1 Chron 5:10–6:49; 10:1–23:6; 28:1–29:28; 2 Chron 1:1–9:31; 13:6
Reign of David 2 Sam 2:1–24:25; 1 Kings 1:1–2:11; 11:17–18; 1 Chron 6:31–49; 11:4–19; 13:1–23:6
Solomon is born 2 Sam 12:24–25
Late reign of David 2 Sam 19:8–24:25; 1 Kings 1:1–2:11; 1 Chron 11:15–19; 20:4–8; 21:1–23:6; 28:1–29:28
David makes preparations to build the temple 1 Chron 22:1–19
David chooses Solomon to succeed as king 1 Kings 1:28–46; 1 Chron 23:1–6; 28:1–29:22
David chooses Solomon as his successor 1 Kings 1:28–37
David holds a national assembly and names Solomon king 1 Chron 23:1–6; 28:1–29:22
Solomon is anointed as king 1 Kings 1:38–40, 43–46; 1 Chron 29:22
Adonijah comes to accept Solomon’s rule 1 Kings 1:48–53
Adonijah takes hold of the altar 1 Kings 1:50–53
Death of David 1 Kings 2:1–11; 1 Chron 29:26–28
David gives instructions to Solomon 1 Kings 2:1–9
Reign of Solomon 1 Kings 2:12–11:43; 1 Chron 29:28; 2 Chron 1:1–9:31; 13:6
Solomon succeeds David 1 Kings 2:12; 1 Chron 29:28; 2 Chron 1:1
Solomon kills Adonijah 1 Kings 2:19–25
Solomon restructures his personnel 1 Kings 2:26–35
Solomon sends Abiathar to Anathoth 1 Kings 2:26–27, 35
Solomon kills Joab 1 Kings 2:28–35
Solomon and Shimei 1 Kings 2:36–46
Solomon tells Shimei not to leave Jerusalem 1 Kings 2:36–38
Solomon kills Shimei 1 Kings 2:39–46
Solomon and Egypt 1 Kings 3:1; 9:16–17
Solomon makes an alliance with Egypt 1 Kings 3:1
Pharaoh gives Gezer to Solomon 1 Kings 9:16–17
Solomon prays for wisdom and receives it 1 Kings 3:2–28; 2 Chron 1:2–13
God appears to Solomon at Gibeon 1 Kings 3:2–15; 2 Chron 1:2–13
Solomon judges wisely 1 Kings 3:16–28
Solomon redistricts Israel 1 Kings 4:7–19
Solomon gains wealth and reputation 1 Kings 4:20–34; 10:14–29; 2 Chron 1:14–17; 9:13–28
Solomon builds the temple and his palace 1 Kings 5:1–9:9; 2 Chron 2:1–8:2
Solomon prepares to build the temple 1 Kings 5:1–18; 2 Chron 2:1–18
Solomon builds the temple 1 Kings 6:1–38; 2 Chron 3:1–14
Solomon builds his palace 1 Kings 7:1–12
Solomon furnishes the temple 1 Kings 7:13–51; 2 Chron 3:15–5:1
Solomon brings the ark to the temple 1 Kings 8:1–21; 2 Chron 5:2–6:11
The temple is dedicated 1 Kings 8:22–66; 2 Chron 6:12–7:10
God appears to Solomon after the temple dedication 1 Kings 9:1–9; 2 Chron 7:11–22
Solomon gives cities to Hiram king of Tyre 1 Kings 9:10–14; 2 Chron 8:1–2
Solomon builds up his kingdom 1 Kings 9:15–28; 10:11–12, 22; 2 Chron 8:3–18; 9:10–11, 21
Solomon builds and fortifies cities 1 Kings 9:15, 17–23; 2 Chron 8:3–10
Solomon builds a house for Pharaoh’s daughter 1 Kings 9:24; 2 Chron 8:11
Solomon builds a shipping fleet 1 Kings 9:26–28; 10:11–12, 22; 2 Chron 8:17–18; 9:10–11, 21
The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon 1 Kings 10:1–10, 13; 2 Chron 9:1–9, 12
Solomon is given to women and idolatry 1 Kings 11:1–25
Solomon marries many women 1 Kings 11:1–3
Solomon commits idolatry 1 Kings 11:4–8
God raises up adversaries to Solomon 1 Kings 11:9–14, 19–25
Jeroboam rises up against Solomon 1 Kings 11:26–40; 2 Chron 13:6
Jeroboam rebels against Solomon 1 Kings 11:26–39; 2 Chron 13:6
Jeroboam flees to Egypt 1 Kings 11:40
Solomon dies 1 Kings 11:41–43; 2 Chron 9:30–31
David and Bathsheba born Solomon - (Bathsheba had been married to Uriah)
David and Bathsheba 2 Sam 11:1–12:23; 1 Chron 20:1
David brings Uriah back to Jerusalem 2 Sam 11:6–13
David has Uriah killed 2 Sam 11:14–25

2. Rehoboam

Divided Kingdom 1 Kings 11:43–22:51; 2 Kings 1:1–13:25; 14:8–17:4; 23:16–17; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 9:31–28:27; Isa 6:1–8:10; Hos 1:2–11; 3:1–5; Amos 1:1; 7:10–17; Jonah 1:1–4:11
David’s line reigns in Judah 1 Kings 11:43–12:24; 13:1–14:16, 25–15:29; 2 Kings 23:16–17; 2 Chron 9:31–16:14
Reign of Rehoboam in Judah 1 Kings 11:43–12:24; 14:25–31; 2 Chron 11:5–23
Jeroboam rebels against Rehoboam 1 Kings 11:43–12:20; 2 Chron 9:31–10:19
Rehoboam succeeds Solomon 1 Kings 11:43; 2 Chron 9:31
Israel rebels against Rehoboam 1 Kings 12:1–19; 2 Chron 10:1–19
Rehoboam defends himself against Israel 1 Kings 12:21–24; 2 Chron 11:1–12
Rehoboam is discouraged from going to war 1 Kings 12:21–24; 2 Chron 11:1–4
Rehoboam fortifies Judah 2 Chron 11:5–12
Rehoboam disperses his sons and appoints Abijah as his successor 2 Chron 11:22–23
Shishak raids Jerusalem 1 Kings 14:25–28; 2 Chron 12:2–12
Rehoboam king of Judah dies 1 Kings 14:29–31; 2 Chron 12:16

3. Abijah

Divided Kingdom 1 Kings 11:43–22:51; 2 Kings 1:1–13:25; 14:8–17:4; 23:16–17; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 9:31–28:27; Isa 6:1–8:10; Hos 1:2–11; 3:1–5; Amos 1:1; 7:10–17; Jonah 1:1–4:11
David’s line reigns in Judah 1 Kings 11:43–12:24; 13:1–14:16, 25–15:29; 2 Kings 23:16–17; 2 Chron 9:31–16:14
Rehoboam disperses his sons and appoints Abijah as his successor 2 Chron 11:22–23
Reign of Abijah in Judah 1 Kings 13:1–14:16; 15:1–8, 29; 2 Kings 23:16–17; 2 Chron 12:6–13:22
Abijah succeeds Rehoboam 1 Kings 14:31; 2 Chron 12:16–13:1
Abijah and Jeroboam I fight 1 Kings 14:2–16; 15:6–7, 29; 2 Chron 13:2–22
Abijah fights Jeroboam 1 Kings 15:6–7; 2 Chron 13:2–22
Abijah king of Judah dies 1 Kings 15:8; 2 Chron 14:1

3. Asa

Divided Kingdom 1 Kings 11:43–22:51; 2 Kings 1:1–13:25; 14:8–17:4; 23:16–17; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 9:31–28:27; Isa 6:1–8:10; Hos 1:2–11; 3:1–5; Amos 1:1; 7:10–17; Jonah 1:1–4:11
David’s line reigns in Judah 1 Kings 11:43–12:24; 13:1–14:16, 25–15:29; 2 Kings 23:16–17; 2 Chron 9:31–16:14
Reign of Asa in Judah 1 Kings 15:9–24; 2 Chron 14:1–15; 16:7–10
Asa succeeds Abijah 1 Kings 15:9–10; 2 Chron 14:1
Asa enacts reforms and defeats the Ethiopians 1 Kings 15:9–15; 2 Chron 14:2–15; 15:1–19
Asa makes his first reform in Judah 2 Chron 14:2–8
Asa fights Zerah the Ethiopian 2 Chron 14:9–15
Asa makes his second reform in Judah 1 Kings 15:9–15; 2 Chron 15:1–19
Asa allies with Syria 1 Kings 15:16–22; 2 Chron 16:1–10
Asa makes a treaty with the king of Syria 1 Kings 15:16–22; 2 Chron 16:1–6
Hanani rebukes Asa for relying on Syria 2 Chron 16:7–10
Asa king of Judah dies 1 Kings 15:23–24; 2 Chron 16:12–14
Asa was a descendant of David and the third king of the southern kingdom of Judah. He ruled for forty-one years (1 Kings 15:10) and “did what was good and right in the eyes of the Lord his God” (2 Chronicles 14:2). The biblical account of Asa’s reign is detailed in 1 Kings 15 and 2 Chronicles 14–16. Asa became king of Judah in the twentieth year of Jeroboam of Israel’s reign (Jeroboam was the first king of the northern kingdom of Israel after the kingdom divided). Asa’s father, Abijah, had done much evil in God’s sight and only ruled for three years. Asa’s grandfather, Rehoboam, had also done evil in God’s sight. But King Asa instituted reform; he removed the male shrine prostitutes, cut down Asherah poles, and even deposed his grandmother from her position as queen mother because of her involvement with Asherah worship (1 Kings 15:12–13; 2 Chronicles 14:3, 16). Asa also commanded his people to follow the Lord (2 Chronicles 14:4). First Kings 15:14 says, “Although he did not remove the high places, Asa’s heart was fully committed to the Lord all his life” (see also 2 Chronicles 15:17). Judah was at peace with surrounding nations for ten years during Asa’s reign (2 Chronicles 14:1). Second Chronicles 15 describes a time when Azariah, a prophet, told Asa that, if he sought the Lord, God would be with him. This encouraged Asa to remove idols and to repair the altar at the Lord’s temple. He assembled the people together to sacrifice to the Lord: “They entered into a covenant to seek the Lord, the God of their ancestors, with all their heart and soul. All who would not seek the Lord, the God of Israel, were to be put to death, whether small or great, man or woman. They took an oath to the Lord with loud acclamation, with shouting and with trumpets and horns. All Judah rejoiced about the oath because they had sworn it wholeheartedly. They sought God eagerly, and he was found by them. So the Lord gave them rest on every side” (2 Chronicles 15:12–15). Asa built up the fortified cities, and Judah enjoyed a time of prosperity (2 Chronicles 14:6–7). When Zerah the Cushite marched out to make war against Judah, Asa called on God for aid. “The Lord struck down the Cushites before Asa and Judah. The Cushites fled, and Asa and his army pursued them as far as Gerar. Such a great number of Cushites fell that they could not recover; they were crushed before the Lord and his forces. The men of Judah carried off a large amount of plunder” (2 Chronicles 14:12–13). Unfortunately, in the thirty-fifth year of Asa’s reign, he made some mistakes. When King Baasha of Israel fortified Ramah so as to isolate the territory of Judah, Asa made a treaty with Ben-Hadad, king of Aram. The treaty was effective in stopping Israel, and the Judahites took supplies from Ramah and built up Geba and Mizpah, but the treaty with Aram was not pleasing to God (see 1 Kings 15:16–22; 2 Chronicles 16:1–10). Hanani, the seer, visited Asa and reminded him of the way God had conquered the Cushites. He chastised Asa for relying on Ben-Hadad instead of God. Rather than repent of his sin, however, Asa became angry; at the same time he began to oppress some of his people (2 Chronicles 16:10). For the remainder of Asa’s reign, his kingdom was at war. In the thirty-ninth year of Asa’s reign, he got a severe foot disease, but he looked only to the physicians for help and not God (2 Chronicles 16:12). In the forty-first year of his reign, Asa died and was buried with great honor. Despite a less-than-ideal end to his reign, Asa is considered a godly and good king. His son, Jehoshaphat, succeeded him and ruled for twenty-five years. Jehoshaphat was also a godly ruler, following in his father’s footsteps and seeking the Lord, yet he also made foolish alliances with those who did not follow the Lord (2 Chronicles 19:1–3; 20:31–33, 20:35–21:1). The life of King Asa is an example to all of us of how easy it is to drift away from the Lord. Asa began his reign with a strong commitment to God, but as years went by his dedication faltered, bringing unnecessary trouble.

4. Jehoshaphat

Divided Kingdom 1 Kings 11:43–22:51; 2 Kings 1:1–13:25; 14:8–17:4; 23:16–17; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 9:31–28:27; Isa 6:1–8:10; Hos 1:2–11; 3:1–5; Amos 1:1; 7:10–17; Jonah 1:1–4:11
Reign of Ahab in Israel 1 Kings 16:28–34; 20:1–22:38; 2 Chron 18:1–34
Micaiah predicts defeat for Ahab 1 Kings 22:1–28; 2 Chron 18:1–27
Ahab is wounded in battle and dies 1 Kings 22:29–38; 2 Chron 18:28–34
Reign of Joram in Israel 2 Kings 1:17; 3:1, 4–27; 8:1–6, 28–29
Israel and Judah ally against Moab 2 Kings 1:1; 3:4–27
Jehoram and Jehoshaphat consult Elisha 2 Kings 3:6–20
Athaliah becomes queen mother in Judah 1 Kings 15:24; 17:1–24; 19:9–21; 22:41–50; 2 Kings 2:1–25; 4:1–8:26; 9:29; 11:1–3; 2 Chron 17:2–19; 19:1–22:12
Reign of Jehoshaphat in Judah 1 Kings 15:24; 22:41–50; 2 Chron 17:1–19; 19:1–21:1
Jehoshaphat succeeds Asa 1 Kings 15:24; 22:41; 2 Chron 17:1
Jehoshaphat enacts reform in Judah 1 Kings 22:42–46; 2 Chron 17:2, 7–19; 19:4–11
Jehoshaphat sends teachers throughout Judah 2 Chron 17:7–9
Jehoshaphat strengthens Judah 2 Chron 17:2, 10–19
Jehoshaphat reforms Judah 1 Kings 22:42–46; 2 Chron 19:4–11
God protects Israel from Moab and Ammon 2 Chron 20:1–30
Jehoshaphat prays and God responds 2 Chron 20:1–19
God defeats Moab and Ammon 2 Chron 20:20–30
Jehoshaphat’s military exploits 1 Kings 22:44–49; 2 Chron 19:1–3; 20:35–37
Jehu rebukes Jehoshaphat 1 Kings 22:44; 2 Chron 19:1–3
Jehoshaphat’s fleet is destroyed 1 Kings 22:48–49; 2 Chron 20:35–37
Jehoshaphat king of Judah dies 1 Kings 22:50; 2 Chron 21:1

5. Joram

Divided Kingdom 1 Kings 11:43–22:51; 2 Kings 1:1–13:25; 14:8–17:4; 23:16–17; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 9:31–28:27; Isa 6:1–8:10; Hos 1:2–11; 3:1–5; Amos 1:1; 7:10–17; Jonah 1:1–4:11
Athaliah becomes queen mother in Judah 1 Kings 15:24; 17:1–24; 19:9–21; 22:41–50; 2 Kings 2:1–25; 4:1–8:26; 9:29; 11:1–3; 2 Chron 17:2–19; 19:1–22:12
Reign of Jehoram in Judah 1 Kings 22:50; 2 Kings 8:17–24; 2 Chron 21:1–20
Jehoram succeeds Jehoshaphat 1 Kings 22:50; 2 Kings 8:16–17; 2 Chron 21:1–5
Jehoram leads Judah astray and the kingdom crumbles 2 Kings 8:17–22; 2 Chron 21:1–17
Jehoram leads Judah astray 2 Kings 8:17–18; 2 Chron 21:5–6, 11
Edom rebels against Judah 2 Kings 8:20–22; 2 Chron 21:8–10
Elijah sends a letter to Jehoram 2 Chron 21:12–15
The Philistines and Arabians attack Jehoram 2 Chron 21:16–17
Jehoram king of Judah dies 2 Kings 8:23–24; 2 Chron 21:18–20
There are two kings in the Bible referred to as King Jehoram/Joram. The first was the son of King Jehoshaphat, and he ruled in the southern kingdom of Judah from 853 to 841 BC. The other King Jehoram was the son of the wicked King Ahab, and he ruled in the northern kingdom of Israel from 852 to 841 BC . The name Joram is a shortened form of Jehoram. Complicating matters is the fact that both Jehorams were brothers-in-law to each other. Jehoram son of Jehoshaphat was 32 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for four years with his father and another eight years on his own in Judah (2 Kings 8:16–17)—a total of twelve years. Although Jehoshaphat had been a good and godly king, Jehoram did not follow in his father’s footsteps. He married Athaliah, daughter of King Ahab (and sister of Ahab’s son Joram), and he became an evil ruler. But, in spite of King Jehoram’s wickedness, God kept his covenant with David and refrained from destroying Judah (2 Kings 8:19). Sadly, God’s mercy had no effect on Jehoram’s behavior. He led his kingdom into idolatry and lewdness, and he caused both Edom and Libnah to revolt against Judah (2 Chronicles 21:8, 11). So God sent word through the prophet Elijah that, because Jehoram had led the people into sin, there would be a devastating attack on Jehoram’s house and Jehoram himself would be struck with an incurable bowel disease (verses 14–15). As part of God’s judgment, the Philistines and Arabs “attacked Judah, invaded it and carried off all the goods found in the king’s palace, together with his sons and wives. Not a son was left to him except Ahaziah, the youngest” (verse 17). The disease killed Jehoram in a gruesome and agonizing manner at the age of 40. The people did not mourn this wicked king (verses 18–20). The other Jehoram (or Joram), son of Ahab, took the throne of Israel in the second year of his brother-in-law’s reign in Judah, and he was just as corrupt. He certainly had a poor example in his father. Ahab had turned the people to idolatry, leading them away from the true God of their fathers to the worship of his wife Jezebel’s god, Baal. Ahab had famously clashed with the Elijah on many occasions, and his wicked rule had led to God’s punishment over the whole land in the form of a years-long drought. The consequences of Ahab’s choices carried into his son’s reign. Ahab had previously taken control of Moab and forced the people to pay tribute, but, when Joram took the throne, Moab rebelled, forcing Joram into war (2 Kings 3:4–5). King Joram called for help in the battle from King Jehoshaphat of Judah and the king of Edom, and the combined armies set out on a march through the wilderness toward Moab (2 Kings 3:8). Along the way, they ran out of water. Jehoshaphat made inquiries and discovered that Elisha, a prophet of God and Elijah’s successor, was nearby. Elisha was brought before the kings, and Joram asked for help from God. Elisha wanted to refuse Joram, but he agreed to help for Jehoshaphat’s sake (verse 14). Through God’s power, Elisha filled a dry stream bed with water for the troops, and he also promised that God would deliver Moab into their hands (verses 15–18). The prophecy came true, and Moab fled before Israel (verses 20–27). In spite of this miracle and the victories in subsequent battles God granted, King Joram continued in his evil ways. Although he had brought Baal worship to an end in Israel, “he clung to the sins of Jeroboam” (2 Kings 3:3), and his demise was sure. Joram was injured in a battle with the Aramians (2 Kings 9:15). God charged Jehoshaphat’s son Jehu to destroy the entire house of Ahab (2 Kings 9:6–10). Jehu obeyed, and, after confronting Joram, he shot Joram between the shoulders with an arrow (verse 24). Unfortunately, Jehu stopped obeying God after he had wiped out Ahab’s family. King Jehu became yet another deficient ruler who continued leading the people of Israel into sin (verse 31).

6. Uzziah

King Uzziah in the Bible was one of the good kings of Judah. His father was King Amaziah, and his mother was a woman named Jecoliah, from Jerusalem. Uzziah was the father of King Jotham. Ministering during Uzziah’s reign were the prophets Hosea, Isaiah, Amos, and Jonah. The kings in the northern kingdom of Israel during his time were Jeroboam II, Zechariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, and Hoshea. Uzziah is also called Azariah in 2 Kings 14:21. King Uzziah was sixteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for 52 years in Judah from approximately 790 to 739 BC. He “did what was right in the eyes of the Lord” as his father Amaziah had done (2 Chronicles 26:4). King Uzziah sought the Lord “during the days of Zechariah, who instructed him in the fear of God.” This Zechariah is most likely a godly prophet to whom Uzziah listened. As long as Uzziah made a point to seek God, God made him prosperous (2 Chronicles 26:5). Unfortunately, after Zechariah died, Uzziah made some mistakes later in his life. King Uzziah in the Bible is shown as a wonderfully intelligent and innovative king, under whom the state of Judah prospered (2 Chronicles 26:6–15). He was used by God to defeat the Philistines and Arabs (verse 7), he built fortified towers and strengthened the armies of Judah (verses 9 and 14), and he commissioned skilled men to create devices that could shoot arrows and large stones at enemies from the city walls (verse 15). He also built up the land, and the Bible says he “loved the soil” (verse 10). The Ammonites paid tribute to King Uzziah, and his fame spread all over the ancient world, as far as the border of Egypt (verses 8 and 15). Unfortunately, King Uzziah’s fame and strength led him to become proud, and this led to his downfall (2 Chronicles 26:16). He committed an unfaithful act by entering the temple of God to burn incense on the altar. Burning incense on the altar was something only the priests could do. By attempting to do this himself, Uzziah was basically saying he was above following the Law. It was not a humble thing to do. Eighty courageous priests, led by a high priest named Azariah, tried to stop the king: “It is not right for you, Uzziah, to burn incense to the Lord. That is for the priests, the descendants of Aaron, who have been consecrated to burn incense. Leave the sanctuary, for you have been unfaithful; and you will not be honored by the Lord God” (2 Chronicles 26:18). Uzziah became angry with the priests who dared confront him. But, “while he was raging at the priests in their presence before the incense altar in the Lord’s temple, leprosy broke out on his forehead” (verse 19). Uzziah ran from the temple in fear, because God had struck him (verse 20). From that day to the day of his death, King Uzziah was a leper. He lived in a separate palace and was not allowed to enter the temple of the Lord. His son, Jotham, governed the people in his place. King Uzziah is also mentioned in the book of Matthew as one of the ancestors of Joseph, Jesus’ legal father (Matthew 1:8–9).

7. Jotham

Divided Kingdom
Judah is given to idolatry
Reign of Jotham in Judah 2 Kings 15:7, 32–16:4; 2 Chron 26:23–28:4
Jotham succeeds Uzziah 2 Kings 15:7, 32–33; 2 Chron 26:23–27:1
Jotham works on several building projects 2 Kings 15:35; 2 Chron 27:3–4
Jotham defeats the Ammonites 2 Chron 27:5
Jotham king of Judah dies 2 Kings 15:38; 2 Chron 27:8–9
Reign of Ahaz in Judah 2 Kings 15:38–16:20; 2 Chron 28:9–19
Jotham became king of Judah at age twenty-five and reigned for sixteen years, from 750 to 735 BC (2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chronicles 27:1). “He did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, just as his father Uzziah had done, but unlike him he did not enter the temple of the Lord. The people, however, continued their corrupt practices” (2 Chronicles 27:2; see also 2 Kings 15:34–35). King Uzziah had been faithful to the Lord but then became prideful and attempted to burn incense on the altar of the Lord, something only priests were permitted to do (2 Chronicles 26:16–20). As a result, God afflicted Uzziah with leprosy. Uzziah lived out the rest of his days in a separate house, while his son Jotham oversaw the palace and governed the people (2 Chronicles 26:21). Jotham did not repeat his father’s mistake of presumptuously entering the temple. “Jotham grew powerful because he walked steadfastly before the Lord his God” (2 Chronicles 27:6). He rebuilt the Upper Gate of the temple and also did work on the wall at the hill of Ophel and built towns, forts, and towers (2 Chronicles 27:3–4). However, King Jotham failed to remove the high places so the people continued to make sacrifices there (2 Kings 15:35). Jotham waged a successful war against the Ammonites, resulting in their paying him tribute for three years (2 Chronicles 27:5). During Jotham’s reign “the Lord began to send Rezin king of Aram and Pekah son of Remaliah against Judah” (2 Kings 15:37). During the reign of Jotham’s son Ahaz, the Arameans would march against Judah, resulting in defeat and heavy casualties for Judah (2 Chronicles 28:5). Initial defeat was followed by Ahaz seeking help from the Assyrians and ultimately looting and shutting up God’s temple and creating more high places (2 Kings 16:5–18; 2 Chronicles 28:5–25). Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah all prophesied during Jotham’s reign (Isaiah 1:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1). Also, the genealogies in 1 Chronicles 1–5 were recorded during Jotham’s reign (1 Chronicles 5:17). Despite Jotham’s godly example, his son Ahaz proved to be a wicked king. Even so, both Jotham and Ahaz are ancestors of Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:9). God is able to use all people to accomplish His good purposes.

8. Ahaz

Divided Kingdom 1 Kings 11:43–22:51; 2 Kings 1:1–13:25; 14:8–17:4; 23:16–17; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 9:31–28:27; Isa 6:1–8:10; Hos 1:2–11; 3:1–5; Amos 1:1; 7:10–17; Jonah 1:1–4:11
Reign of Pekah in Israel 2 Kings 15:25–37; 16:5–6; 2 Chron 28:5–8; Isa 7:1–9
Israel allies with Syria and attacks Judah 2 Kings 15:37; 16:5–6; 2 Chron 28:5–8; Isa 7:1–9
Israel and Syria attack Judah 2 Kings 15:37; 16:5–6; 2 Chron 28:5–8; Isa 7:1–2
Isaiah says that Israel and Syria will not defeat Judah Isa 7:3–9
Isaiah’s early prophetic career Isa 6:1–8:10
Isaiah gives Ahaz the sign of Immanuel Isa 7:10–25
Judah is given to idolatry 2 Kings 15:7–16:20; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 26:23–28:27
Reign of Ahaz in Judah 2 Kings 15:38–16:20; 2 Chron 28:9–19
Ahaz succeeds Jotham 2 Kings 15:38–16:2; 2 Chron 27:9–28:1
Ahaz commits idolatry 2 Kings 16:3–4; 2 Chron 28:2–4
Ahaz allies with Tiglath-pileser III 2 Kings 15:29; 16:7–20; 1 Chron 5:26; 2 Chron 28:16–27
Ahaz becomes a vassal of Tiglath-pileser 2 Kings 16:7–8, 10; 2 Chron 28:16, 20–21
Ahaz sets up an altar 2 Kings 16:10–18; 2 Chron 28:22–25
Ahaz king of Judah dies 2 Kings 16:20; 2 Chron 28:27
9. Hezekiah -
Son and successor of Ahaz as king of Judah (716/15–687/86 B.C.). Hezekiah began his reign when he was 25 years old. At this time in history, the nation of Assyria had risen to power.
Assyrian Exile 2 Kings 16:20–17:6, 23–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 20:1–6; 22:9–25; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24, 18–19; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Hezekiah defends his people 2 Kings 18:7–8
Hezekiah rebels against Assyria 2 Kings 18:7
Hezekiah fights the Philistines 2 Kings 18:8
Decline of Judah 2 Kings 16:20; 18:1–4, 13–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 22:9–11; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Reign of Hezekiah in Judah 2 Kings 16:20; 18:1–2, 4, 13–20:21; 2 Chron 28:27–32:23, 30–33; Isa 22:9–11; 36:1–37:37; 38:21–39:8; Jer 26:18–19; Micah 3:9–12
Hezekiah succeeds Ahaz 2 Kings 16:20; 18:1–2; 2 Chron 28:27–29:1
Hezekiah and the temple 2 Chron 29:3–36
Hezekiah cleanses the temple 2 Chron 29:3–19
Hezekiah reconsecrates the temple 2 Chron 29:20–36
Hezekiah upholds the law 2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chron 30:1–31:19
Hezekiah celebrates the Passover 2 Chron 30:1–27
Hezekiah and the people destroy idols 2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chron 31:1
Hezekiah organizes the priests and Levites 2 Chron 31:2–19
Hezekiah is healed from an illness 2 Kings 20:1–11; 2 Chron 32:24–26; Isa 38:1–8, 21–22
Hezekiah gives a tour to Babylonian envoys 2 Kings 20:12–19; 2 Chron 32:31; Isa 39:1–8
Sennacherib’s campaign against Judah 2 Kings 18:13–19:7; 20:20; 2 Chron 32:1–19, 30; Isa 22:9–11; 36:1–37:7
Sennacherib invades Judah 2 Kings 18:13–16; 2 Chron 32:1; Isa 36:1
Hezekiah fortifies Jerusalem 2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chron 32:2–8, 30; Isa 22:9–11
Isaiah Reassures Hezekiah 2 Kings 19:1–7; Isa 37:1–7
Sennacherib’s campaign weakens 2 Kings 19:8–36; 2 Chron 32:20–23; Isa 37:8–37
Sennacherib sends a message to Hezekiah 2 Kings 19:8–13; Isa 37:8–13
Hezekiah prays for deliverance 2 Kings 19:14–17; 2 Chron 32:20; Isa 37:14–20
Hezekiah king of Judah dies 2 Kings 20:21; 2 Chron 32:33
10. Manasseh
Assyrian Exile 2 Kings 16:20–17:6, 23–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 20:1–6; 22:9–25; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24, 18–19; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Decline of Judah 2 Kings 16:20; 18:1–4, 13–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 22:9–11; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Reign of Manasseh in Judah 2 Kings 19:37–21:18; 2 Chron 32:21, 33–33:20; Isa 37:38; Nah 3:8–10
Manasseh succeeds Hezekiah 2 Kings 20:21–21:1; 2 Chron 32:33–33:1
Manasseh commits idolatry 2 Kings 21:3–16; 2 Chron 33:3–10
Manasseh repents and reforms Judah 2 Chron 33:11–17
Manasseh repents 2 Chron 33:11–13
Manasseh reforms Judah 2 Chron 33:14–17
Manasseh king of Judah dies 2 Kings 21:18; 2 Chron 33:20
11. Amon
Assyrian Exile 2 Kings 16:20–17:6, 23–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 20:1–6; 22:9–25; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24, 18–19; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Decline of Judah 2 Kings 16:20; 18:1–4, 13–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 22:9–11; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Reign of Amon in Judah 2 Kings 21:18–23; 2 Chron 33:20–24
Amon succeeds Manasseh 2 Kings 21:18–19; 2 Chron 33:20–21
Amon is assassinated 2 Kings 21:23; 2 Chron 33:24
Second Kings 21 and 2 Chronicles 33 tell us about King Amon of Judah. He was an evil king, the son of Manasseh and father of Josiah. Amon was twenty-two years old when he began to rule and was king for only two years (642–640 BC) before he was assassinated. The Bible has harsh words for the evil king Amon. Second Chronicles 33:22–23 says, “He did evil in the eyes of the Lord, as his father Manasseh had done. Amon worshiped and offered sacrifices to all the idols Manasseh had made. But unlike his father Manasseh, he did not humble himself before the Lord; Amon increased his guilt” (2 Chronicles 33:22–23). Second Kings 21:22 says, “He forsook the Lord, the God of his ancestors, and did not walk in obedience to him.” The prophet Zephaniah wrote against the sins of Jerusalem that had been established during the reign of Amon. He cites Baal-worship (Zephaniah 1:4), star-worship (verse 5), and Molech-worship (verse 5). He goes on to say, “Her prophets are unprincipled; they are treacherous people. Her priests profane the sanctuary and do violence to the law” (Zephaniah 3:4). Amon’s father, Manasseh, was responsible for rebuilding the pagan high places that Hezekiah had torn down. “Manasseh led Judah and the people of Jerusalem astray, so that they did more evil than the nations the Lord had destroyed before the Israelites” (2 Chronicles 33:9). God spoke to Manasseh and the people, but they did not listen. So God sent the Assyrians to attack Judah. When Manasseh was captured by the Assyrians and brought to Babylon, he called out to God. God had grace on Manasseh and returned him to Jerusalem. In response, Manasseh removed the foreign gods and idols from the temple and restored the altar of the Lord there. The people still sacrificed on the high places, yet only to God. Manasseh himself repented and attempted to restore righteousness to his kingdom. Unfortunately, his son did not carry on that reform. Amon did evil in God’s sight, and his own servants killed him. The people of Judah struck down those who had conspired against King Amon. They installed Amon’s eight-year-old son, Josiah, as king. Josiah was responsible for widespread reform in Judah. It was during Josiah’s reign that the temple was repaired and Hilkiah, the high priest, found the Book of the Law. Josiah had it read aloud and tore his clothes at the hearing. Josiah understood the depth of the sin of the people and God’s righteous anger against them. Through a prophetess, Huldah, God promised disaster for Judah, but He also demonstrated grace. He told Josiah this: “Because your heart was responsive and you humbled yourself before the Lord when you heard what I have spoken against this place and its people—that they would become a curse and be laid waste—and because you tore your robes and wept in my presence, I also have heard you, declares the Lord. Therefore I will gather you to your ancestors, and you will be buried in peace. Your eyes will not see all the disaster I am going to bring on this place” (2 Kings 22:19–20). Josiah proceeded to have the Book of the Covenant read to the people and to renew the covenant between the people and God. It is interesting to see that Amon followed in the evil ways of his father, failing to humble himself as his father had eventually done, yet he had a godly son. Each of us is accountable to God. We are not destined to walk in the footsteps of our ancestors’ examples, whether good or bad. The story of Amon serves as a warning to us as well as an encouragement. Judah would eventually receive God’s punishment because of what they had done in Manasseh’s days (2 Kings 23:26–27), but, during Josiah’s reign, they walked in God’s ways. Josiah was not bound to repeat his father’s mistakes. Rather, “Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him who turned to the Lord as he did—with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength, in accordance with all the Law of Moses” (2 Kings 23:25).
13. Josiah -
The 15th king of Judah, circa 640–609 BC. Only eight years old when he became king. Ruled for 31 years. His name likely means “Yahweh will give.”
Yet Josiah was a godly king and known as one of the world’s youngest kings; he began his reign at age 8 after his father was assassinated. A highlight of Josiah’s reign was his rediscovery of the Law of the Lord.
Assyrian Exile 2 Kings 16:20–17:6, 23–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 20:1–6; 22:9–25; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24, 18–19; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Decline of Judah 2 Kings 16:20; 18:1–4, 13–23:36; 2 Chron 28:27–36:5; Isa 22:9–11; 36:1–38:8, 21–39:8; Jer 1:1–19; 7:1–15; 13:1–11; 17:19–18:12; 19:1–20:6; 26:1–24; Micah 3:9–12; Nah 3:8–10; Zeph 1:1
Reign of Josiah in Judah 2 Kings 21:24; 22:1–23:30; 2 Chron 33:25–35:25; Zeph 1:1
Josiah becomes king 2 Kings 21:24; 22:1; 2 Chron 33:25–34:7; Zeph 1:1
Josiah succeeds Amon 2 Kings 21:24; 22:1; 2 Chron 33:25–34:1
Josiah makes reforms 2 Chron 34:3–7
The Book of the Law is found 2 Kings 22:3–13; 2 Chron 34:8–21
Josiah reforms Judah 2 Kings 23:1–24; 2 Chron 34:29–35:19
Josiah renews the covenant 2 Kings 23:1–3; 2 Chron 34:29–32
Josiah makes more reforms 2 Kings 23:4–14, 24; 2 Chron 34:33
Josiah destroys Jeroboam’s altar 2 Kings 23:15–20
Josiah keeps the Passover 2 Kings 23:21–23; 2 Chron 35:1–19
Josiah is killed in battle 2 Kings 23:29–30; 2 Chron 35:20–25
14. Jeconiah
The Lexham Bible Dictionary Textual Issue with Respect to Jehoiachin’s Age and Reign

Second Kings 24:8 specifies that Jehoiachin was 18 years old when he became king, and that he reigned for three months. However, the Masoretic Text of 2 Chr 36:9 indicates that he took the throne when he was just eight years old, and that he reigned for three months and 10 days. The text in Kings is most likely correct, as Jehoiachin had wives and sons when he went into exile. The Chronicles text is unusual in that it measures the length of his reign down to the days. The number 10 in the Chronicles text may be a scribal correction that was moved from his age to his reign.

Babylonian Captivity 2 Kings 1:1–2; 24:6–25:30; 2 Chron 36:6–21; Jer 21:1–10; 24:1–25:14; 27:1–29:32; 32:1–34:22; 35:1–19; 36:1–38:28; 39:2–44:30; 45:1–5; 46:2; 50:17; 51:59–52:34; Ezek 1:1–5:17; 8:1–12:20; 14:1–11; 20:1–44; 24:1–27; 26:1–21; 29:1–21; 30:20–32:32; 33:21–33; 37:1–28; 40:1–48:35; Dan 1:1–2, 3–3:30; 4:4–37; 5:1–29; 7:1–8:27
Fall of Judah 2 Kings 1:1–2; 24:6–25:30; 2 Chron 36:6–21; Jer 21:1–10; 24:1–25:14; 27:1–29:32; 32:1–34:22; 35:1–19; 36:1–38:28; 39:2–44:30; 45:1–5; 46:2; 50:17; 51:59–52:34; Ezek 1:1–5:17; 8:1–12:20; 14:1–11; 20:1–44; 24:1–27; 26:1–21; 29:1–21; 30:20–32:32; 33:21–33; 37:1–28; 40:1–48:35; Dan 1:1–2, 3–3:30; 4:4–37; 5:1–29; 7:1–8:27
Jehoiachin as vassal of Babylon 2 Kings 24:6, 8, 10–16; 2 Chron 36:9–10; Jer 24:1–10
Jehoiachin in exile 2 Kings 24:6, 8, 10–16; 2 Chron 36:9–10; Jer 24:1–10
Jehoiachin succeeds Jehoiakim 2 Kings 24:6, 8; 2 Chron 36:9
Jehoiachin is taken into exile 2 Kings 24:10–16; 2 Chron 36:10
Jehoiachin is released from prison 2 Kings 25:27–30; Jer 52:31–34
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