Coherence Essay: God as Shepherd for NT Class

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3-4 pages no more, double spaced, doesnt include cover page or bibliography

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Find quotations or allusions to help us understand how 1 Peter is drawing on old testaments. Any typological references?
1 Peter 5:1–3 ESV
1 So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a partaker in the glory that is going to be revealed: 2 shepherd the flock of God that is among you, exercising oversight, not under compulsion, but willingly, as God would have you; not for shameful gain, but eagerly; 3 not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock.
1 Peter 5:4 ESV
4 And when the chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.
Allusion to shepherds in Ezekiel
How it helps you to explain or understand how it helps you to better understand how to shephard the flock of God.
Commentary:
1 Peter - The Two Horizons New Testament Commentary
Joel B. Green 2007
Grand Rapids Michigan
William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company
Gives 3 reasons why this reference to shepherding comes from the OT and is signficant
It identifies Jesus as the true Shephard (v4). Using the same word, shepard for pastors extends some authority to pastors directly from Christ.
Israels leaders have been identified as shephards in Jeremiah 23:1-4 and Ezekiel 34. This role is now being taken over by elders in the church.
There is a directly line from the words of Christ in John 21:13-17 to Peter to tend the sheep. Peter is now extending that role to other elders.
Jeremiah 23:1–4 ESV
1 “Woe to the shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture!” declares the Lord. 2 Therefore thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, concerning the shepherds who care for my people: “You have scattered my flock and have driven them away, and you have not attended to them. Behold, I will attend to you for your evil deeds, declares the Lord. 3 Then I will gather the remnant of my flock out of all the countries where I have driven them, and I will bring them back to their fold, and they shall be fruitful and multiply. 4 I will set shepherds over them who will care for them, and they shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall any be missing, declares the Lord.
Ezekiel 34 ESV
1 The word of the Lord came to me: 2 “Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel; prophesy, and say to them, even to the shepherds, Thus says the Lord God: Ah, shepherds of Israel who have been feeding yourselves! Should not shepherds feed the sheep? 3 You eat the fat, you clothe yourselves with the wool, you slaughter the fat ones, but you do not feed the sheep. 4 The weak you have not strengthened, the sick you have not healed, the injured you have not bound up, the strayed you have not brought back, the lost you have not sought, and with force and harshness you have ruled them. 5 So they were scattered, because there was no shepherd, and they became food for all the wild beasts. My sheep were scattered; 6 they wandered over all the mountains and on every high hill. My sheep were scattered over all the face of the earth, with none to search or seek for them. 7 “Therefore, you shepherds, hear the word of the Lord: 8 As I live, declares the Lord God, surely because my sheep have become a prey, and my sheep have become food for all the wild beasts, since there was no shepherd, and because my shepherds have not searched for my sheep, but the shepherds have fed themselves, and have not fed my sheep, 9 therefore, you shepherds, hear the word of the Lord: 10 Thus says the Lord God, Behold, I am against the shepherds, and I will require my sheep at their hand and put a stop to their feeding the sheep. No longer shall the shepherds feed themselves. I will rescue my sheep from their mouths, that they may not be food for them. 11 “For thus says the Lord God: Behold, I, I myself will search for my sheep and will seek them out. 12 As a shepherd seeks out his flock when he is among his sheep that have been scattered, so will I seek out my sheep, and I will rescue them from all places where they have been scattered on a day of clouds and thick darkness. 13 And I will bring them out from the peoples and gather them from the countries, and will bring them into their own land. And I will feed them on the mountains of Israel, by the ravines, and in all the inhabited places of the country. 14 I will feed them with good pasture, and on the mountain heights of Israel shall be their grazing land. There they shall lie down in good grazing land, and on rich pasture they shall feed on the mountains of Israel. 15 I myself will be the shepherd of my sheep, and I myself will make them lie down, declares the Lord God. 16 I will seek the lost, and I will bring back the strayed, and I will bind up the injured, and I will strengthen the weak, and the fat and the strong I will destroy. I will feed them in justice. 17 “As for you, my flock, thus says the Lord God: Behold, I judge between sheep and sheep, between rams and male goats. 18 Is it not enough for you to feed on the good pasture, that you must tread down with your feet the rest of your pasture; and to drink of clear water, that you must muddy the rest of the water with your feet? 19 And must my sheep eat what you have trodden with your feet, and drink what you have muddied with your feet? 20 “Therefore, thus says the Lord God to them: Behold, I, I myself will judge between the fat sheep and the lean sheep. 21 Because you push with side and shoulder, and thrust at all the weak with your horns, till you have scattered them abroad, 22 I will rescue my flock; they shall no longer be a prey. And I will judge between sheep and sheep. 23 And I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd. 24 And I, the Lord, will be their God, and my servant David shall be prince among them. I am the Lord; I have spoken. 25 “I will make with them a covenant of peace and banish wild beasts from the land, so that they may dwell securely in the wilderness and sleep in the woods. 26 And I will make them and the places all around my hill a blessing, and I will send down the showers in their season; they shall be showers of blessing. 27 And the trees of the field shall yield their fruit, and the earth shall yield its increase, and they shall be secure in their land. And they shall know that I am the Lord, when I break the bars of their yoke, and deliver them from the hand of those who enslaved them. 28 They shall no more be a prey to the nations, nor shall the beasts of the land devour them. They shall dwell securely, and none shall make them afraid. 29 And I will provide for them renowned plantations so that they shall no more be consumed with hunger in the land, and no longer suffer the reproach of the nations. 30 And they shall know that I am the Lord their God with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are my people, declares the Lord God. 31 And you are my sheep, human sheep of my pasture, and I am your God, declares the Lord God.”
In both of these passages, there is a reference to terrible shepherds of Israel. But a Shepard is coming back for his sheep that is an actual good shephard.
This in a way is a typology.
I want to re-exam the text because i believe there are some links between the two OT references and 1 Peter
1 Peter 5:1–3 (ESV)
1 So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a partaker in the glory that is going to be revealed: 2 shepherd the flock of God that is among you, exercising oversight, not under compulsion, but willingly, as God would have you; not for shameful gain, but eagerly; 3 not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock.
Willing exercising oversight
what does it mean to willing do this
So the comparison here is that if God calls you to shephard and oversee, be willing. Do not lead because someone forced you to do it.
do not be compulsion in oversight
what does it mean to be compulsion as opposed to willing
anagkastōs
Strongs G317
By force or constrain
Do not lead for shameful gain
Do it willingly, even if there is no gain
Similarly to beginning, do not let money be the reason to lead either. Do not be forced or do not be tempted by money to lead a church as an elder. Do it willingly for the Lord and to the Lord.
do not be domineering
be an example
Tyndale New Testament Commentaries Volume 17/ General Editor: Leon Morris / 1 Peter: An introduction and commentary
Wayne A. Grudem / Inter-Varsity Press / Tyndale Press 1988 / Downers Grove IL
Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries Volume 22 / General Editor: Donald J. Wiseman / Ezekiel: An introduction and commentary
John B. Taylor / Inter-Varsity Press / Tyndale Press 1969 / Downers Grove IL
In Jeremiah 23:
Destroys the sheep
They have scattered because of you.
I will bring them back and put good shepards over them.
Could this be an allusion to the Elder of the NT?
Check out commentary on this passage.
Mostly a reference to the future good king to come.
Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries Volume 21 / General Editor: Donald J. Wiseman / Jeremiah and Lamentations: An introduction and commentary
R.K. Harrison / Inter-Varsity Press / Tyndale Press 1973 / Downers Grove IL
TOTC J&L says that ultimately the fault of the exile falls on the bad leadership of Israel. This would have mostly fell on the Kings shoulders. He would be the pastor of the people. Maybe or maybe not in a religious way, but definitely the overseer of the people before God. Says this chapter is a very specific reference to the coming Messiah King, the good shepherd.
In Ezekiel 34,
Have been feeding themselves instead of the people. Greedy
Do not take care of their people
The blood of the people is on the leaders that did not take care of the people and caused them to scatter.
God will gather the sheep himself.
I will shephard the sheep
I will take care of the needs of the sheep
possible typology or allusion to Christ-says he will set up david as their sheperd
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