Lucas 8,1-3: As mulheres no Ministério de Jesus

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Introdução

Harmony of the Gospels Sec. 60: Many Women Support Christ’s Work

This account is unique to Luke. It shows women of every social stratum contributed to His ministry.

At this point Luke briefly summarized Jesus’ ministry of proclaiming the good news of God’s kingdom and ministry of healing. This summary is similar to that in 4:40–44, but here Luke mentioned the Twelve and “some women” and even named three of the latter. Since Luke had just referred to Jesus’ forgiveness of a woman in the previous account, it may have seemed natural to mention Jesus’ ministry to other women in this summary. In introducing the women, Luke also prepared the reader for the role they would play at the crucifixion (23:49), the empty tomb (24:1–11), and perhaps also in the early church (Acts 1:14).

1a) Depois disso,

Aqui o autor dá continuidade à narrativa anterior, na qual uma mulher pecadora fora perdoada.

1b) ele andava por cidades e povoados,

1c) pregando e anunciando a Boa Nova do Reino de Deus. (4,43 - Primeira vez)

This is the first occurrence of the expression “kingdom of God” in Luke. It occurs earlier in Mark (1:15) and in Matthew (4:17). Luke, however, chose to introduce it at this point. The expression occurs thirty-one times in Luke, and “kingdom” occurs another six times. Luke made no attempt to define this expression here, for he anticipated that his readers already possessed some understanding of its meaning. Furthermore the preceding material in Luke 1:1–4:42 should help further clarify what his message of God’s kingdom entails.

The expression “kingdom of God” should be interpreted dynamically rather than statically, for it involves the dynamic of God’s reign rather than a territory with static borders. The term “kingdom” in the Bible usually refers to the rule of someone rather than the territory controlled (cf. 19:12, 15; 23:42). Understood this way, God’s kingdom was proclaimed by Jesus and Luke as a present reality (11:14–22; 16:16; 17:20–21) as well as a future hope (11:2; 13:22–30; 22:16–18). The alternatives of either a “realized” understanding of God’s kingdom (the kingdom already has come) or a “consistent” understanding (the kingdom is still entirely in the future) are therefore unnecessary. God’s kingdom is both present and future. It already has been realized in fulfillment of the OT promises but awaits the final consummation when Jesus returns. In this verse the “good news of the kingdom of God refers to its present realized manifestation. See Introduction 8 (2).

1d) Os Doze o acompanhavam,

The Twelve were mentioned earlier (see comments on 6:13), and they will appear more often from this point on.

2a) assim como algumas mulheres que haviam sido curadas de espíritos malignos e doenças:

2b) Maria, chamada Madalena, da qual haviam saído sete demônios,

Magdala, the home of Mary, is not mentioned in ancient sources outside of the NT, and its location is also unknown. The way Luke introduced Mary Magdalene indicates that she was not the same woman mentioned in 7:36–50. She probably was mentioned before the other women because of her being better known.

Luke mentioned this in order to show the severity of her problem (cf. 11:26) and the greatness of Jesus’ miracle of healing.

3a) Joana, mulher de Cuza, o procurador de Herodes,

JOANNA (Ἰωάννα, Iōanna). Wife of Chuza; among those who provided for Jesus and the disciples (Luke 8:3; 24:10).

In this text, Joanna is identified as the wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward. The Greek, epitropus, (steward) denotes a “manager” (Luke T. Johnson, The Gospel of Luke, 131) within the governing system of Herod Antipas. As one of the sons of the famed Herod the Great, he reigned over Galilee and Peraea. Subsequently, both Joanna and her husband would have had contact with the ruling classes and influential wealthy families of Galilee. As a member of the higher social class, Joanna may have supported Jesus not only financially, but within her social circles as well.

3b) Susana

The Lexham Bible Dictionary Susanna, Follower of Jesus

SUSANNA, FOLLOWER OF JESUS (Σουσάννα, Sousanna). A woman who provided for Jesus and His disciples as they traveled (Luke 8:3). Susanna and the other women mentioned here probably provided for Jesus’ ministry both practically and financially.

3c) e várias outras, que o serviam com seus bens.

The Greek phrase used here appears in the feminine form, indicating that Luke is referring specifically to women.

As mulheres às vezes serviam como clientes ou apoiadores de professores ou associações religiosas no antigo Mediterrâneo.
As mulheres às vezes serviam como clientes ou apoiadores de professores ou associações religiosas no antigo Mediterrâneo.

In a patriarchal culture, such as Jesus’, women were often mistreated and undervalued; in contrast, Jesus welcomes them among His followers. This seems to have been unusual for a rabbi; it seems rabbis mainly had male disciples.

Throughout his Gospel, Luke highlights Jesus’ concern for people on the fringes of Jewish society. So far, through the life of Jesus, God has shown His love to shepherds, a barren woman, a peasant girl, Gentiles, a tax collector, the ceremonially unclean, and the sick and unwell, among others. In the immediately preceding passage (7:36–50), Luke recounts Jesus’ forgiveness and acceptance of a woman who might have been a prostitute (see note on 7:39). Toward the end of Luke, Jesus’ resurrection is announced first to a group of women (23:55–24:10).

40. In Luke 8:3, what resources might these women have had that they so willingly shared with Jesus and the disciples? Weren’t women of that time chattel who owned nothing?

Luke indicates in 8:3 that particular women who traveled with Jesus and others “provided for them out of their resources.” The verse offers two significant points in the original Greek. The Greek term for “resources,” hyparchonton, translates into “money,” “possessions,” and/or “property.” The more important phrase “provided for them” comes from Mark 15:41 to describe the women as patrons/benefactors. The English translation “provided for” (Greek, diakoneo), means “to serve.” The noun, deacon, originates from the same Greek stem. Your remark about ancient women having no financial resources needs some qualifications. Some biblical texts, such as, Luke 8:3, suggest that women could be financially solvent in the Greco-Roman world of the first century. Later in Acts 16:14, Luke describes Lydia of Thyatira as a “dealer” in purple dye cloth. He also presents her as head of a household. A few chapters later in Acts 18:3, Luke narrates that Priscilla, along with her husband, worked in the trade of tent-making. These Lukan references portray certain women as financially independent, or at least equal in business. Thus, the women that Luke names in Luke 8:2–3 exemplify some of the best practices of religious Jewish women. They do good works and provide generously for others in need.

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