Notes From Lecture Of Old Testament Survey

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Old Testament Survey

Dr. Berrey

Tuesday, February 08, 2005

Intro lecture

1:06 PM

Class intro

  1. know everything related to things on the study guide
    1. the questions will be detailed
  2. sometimes things will come from footnotes
  3. chapter content points
    1. not necessary to know outline points

Introduction to the Old Testament

  1. over view
    1. Old Testament

                                                              i.      Term appears 1 time in the Bible

1.      II Cor 3:14 – English

a.       Referring to the Old Covenant as opposed to the new covenant

b.      The Old Covenant is found in the Old Testament

2.      Hebrews 8:13 – in the Greek

    1. Statistics

                                                              i.      39 books of the Old Testament

                                                            ii.      929 Chapters

                                                          iii.      23,100 Verses

                                                          iv.      written over a period of about 1000 years

1.      1425 BC - 425 BC

                                                            v.      [JWM1] # of authors

1.      at least 33

                                                          vi.      written in 2 languages

1.      Hebrew – most is in Hebrew

2.      Aramaic – 4 sections written in Aramaic

a.       Genesis 31:47 – one word is Aramaic

b.      Ezra 4:18-6:18; 6:12-26 – decree from king that was Aramaic

c.       Daniel 2:4-7:28 – lived in Persia

d.      Jeremiah 10:11 – as if God wanted all the world to understand this verse

        • [JWM2] Aramaic is to the old testament what English is to today
          • English is the trade language of today
    1. Canon[JWM3]  of the Old Testament                                                               i.      Canon – something that has met a standard or lived up to a measurement

1.      books that have measured up to divine inspiration

                                                            ii.      statements on cannon

1.      the four fold categorization of our old testament follows the arrangement of the Latin vulgate

2.      while our English old testament follows the arrangement of the Latin vulgate it contains the same content as the masoretic text

                                                          iii.      [JWM4] English – canon

1.      law – genesis – Deuteronomy

2.      pre-exilic Joshua- chronicles

3.      Post-exilic – Ezra- Esther

4.      poetical – Job- Song of Solomon

5.      Major – Isaiah – Daniel

6.      Minor - Hosea – Malachi

a.       Pre-exilic – Hosea – Zephaniah

b.      Post-exilic – Haggai- Malachi 

                                                          iv.      Hebrew – canon


1.      [JWM5] our English old testament canon is based on the masoretic texts

a.       Masoretes ( AD 500 – 950)[JWM6] 

2.      our oldest best preserved masoretic manuscript is Leningrad          ms- b19a

a.       about 1008 AD

b.      contains all the old testament[JWM7] 

3.      the # of books in the Hebrew Old Testament was often 22 or 24

a.       same content as English but different # of books

4.      the masoretic text is arranged under 3 groupings

a.       English is divided into 4

5.      the first section of the Hebrew Old Testament is the Torah

a.       Torah comes from a Hebrew word that means to teach or instruct[JWM8] 

b.      Torah = “instruction”[JWM9] 

                                                                                                                                      i.      We translate it as Law

6.      The Jews classify the second part of their Old Testament as the prophets

7.       the word Nebi’im is translated Prophets into English; It primarily refers to spokesmen.

a.       Primary idea in the word is not predictor or foreteller

b.      Primary idea of a prophet is a preacher

8.      the third grouping of the Hebrew Old Testament is called the writings

a.       the Megilloth were read at different feasts

                                                                                                                                      i.      song of songs – read at Passover

                                                                                                                                    ii.      book of Ruth – Pentecost

                                                                                                                                  iii.      book of lamentations – fall of Jerusalem

                                                                                                                                  iv.      book of Ecclesiastes – feast of tabernacles

                                                                                                                                    v.      book of Esther - feast Purin

9.      this tri partite division of the old testament was evidently used in Christ’s day

a.       Luke 24

  1. story of the Old Testament
    1. the Old Testament contains                                                               i.      about 4000 years

1.      first 2000 years genesis 1-11

2.      next 2000 years Genesis 12 – Malachi 4

a.       focus God reconciling men to himself by means of one nation of people

b.      he will take that one nation of people and reveal himself to them through Abraham


                                                                                                                                      i.      Luke 24

d.      Old Testament – preparation for the coming of the Messiah

e.       New Testament – the revelation of Messiah

Thursday, February 10, 2005

1:30 PM

  1. inspiration of the Old Testament
    1. Key new testament passages (6)

                                                              i.      Hebrews 1:1-2

1.      divides revelation into 2 epics

2.      verse 1 describes the Old Testament

a.       god spoke by the fathers – Devine revelation

3.      verse 2 describes the New Testament

a.       God speaks through his son – Devine revelation

How did God give these truths to the fathers (prophets)?

2:01 PM

                                                            ii.      I Peter 1:10-11           

1.      what the fathers received from God came through the Spirit of Christ

2.      the Spirit was in them and through him they communicated with others

a.       they are wrestling over whether they understand the message

What prophesy are we talking about?

                                                          iii.      II Peter 1: 20-21

1.      the inspiration is prophecies that were written down

2.      they all were not personal explanation

3.      the prophesy did not start with their own thinking or desire

a.       it came by the will of god

b.      they did not decide when or what came

c.       God choose to send prophecy when He wanted to

4.      they spoke only when they were moved by the holy ghost like when wind fills the sails of a boat

5.      Old Testament scripture came through men but not from them

a.       The impulse was from God

                                                          iv.      II Timothy 3:16

1.      all scripture is given from God (God breathed)

a.       God breathed it out

b.      God worked through the writers but it is the Bible that is Inspired

                                                                                                                                      i.      He was communicating with them

2.      all scripture is profitable

                                                            v.      John 10:34-35

1.      nothing that God has said can be broken (loosed)

a.       God cannot take back what He said

b.      Nothing needs to be taken back

2.      every particular cannot be broken

                                                          vi.      Matthew 5:18 – how authoritative is the bible

1.      Christ demands the authority of the Old Testament is down to the smallest letters of the Hebrew alphabet

a.       Yodah (jot) smallest letter

b.      Titel – small differences

                                                                                                                                      i.      Like R – P