Salvation In The Bible - The Mosaic Covenant

Salvation in the Bible  •  Sermon  •  Submitted
0 ratings

Detailing God's plan of salvation under the dispensation of law



Genesis 15:12–14 KJV 1900
12 And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell upon him. 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; 14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.
Pray - Be Seated


The Mosaic Covenant:
Most of the Old Testament is written under this period.
From about mid-Exodus through Malachi is all under the Mosaic Covenant.
Covers a period of about 1500 years.
Most of the Old Testament quotes and allusions found in the New Testament pull from this period.
The Mosaic Covenant is the most complicated and the most difficult of all covenants. The elaborate wording of the covenant, the intracate details of the sacrifices, priesthood and sanctuary, and the complete governing of the national life of Israel by the Sabbaths and religious festivals make it the fullest expression of a covenant in scripture.

With Whom Was The Covenant Made?

Deuteronomy 5:1–3 KJV 1900
1 And Moses called all Israel, and said unto them, Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and keep, and do them. 2 The Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. 3 The Lord made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day.
The Covenant was made with the nation of Israel, the descendance of Jacob that were present that day at Mount Horeb.

When Was The Covenant Given?

Galatians 3:16–18 KJV 1900
16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. 17 And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. 18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.
The Mosaic Covenant was made 430 years after the Abrahamic Covenant. It was given to Israel in the wilderness at Mount Horeb after their deliverance from Egypt.

Why Was The Covenant Made?

Nation on Probation
Ezekiel 20:5–9 KJV 1900
5 And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God; In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up mine hand unto them, saying, I am the Lord your God; 6 In the day that I lifted up mine hand unto them, to bring them forth of the land of Egypt into a land that I had espied for them, flowing with milk and honey, which is the glory of all lands: 7 Then said I unto them, Cast ye away every man the abominations of his eyes, and defile not yourselves with the idols of Egypt: I am the Lord your God. 8 But they rebelled against me, and would not hearken unto me: they did not every man cast away the abominations of their eyes, neither did they forsake the idols of Egypt: then I said, I will pour out my fury upon them, to accomplish my anger against them in the midst of the land of Egypt. 9 But I wrought for my name’s sake, that it should not be polluted before the heathen, among whom they were, in whose sight I made myself known unto them, in bringing them forth out of the land of Egypt.
They forsook the Lord God of their fathers and worshipped the idols of Egypt.
It was probably for this reason they found themselves enslaved in Egypt.
Exodus 2:23–25 KJV 1900
23 And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage. 24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. 25 And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto them.
Israel’s deliverance was based on the Abrahamic Covenant which was based on grace and faith, not works.
The only “action” Israel needed to do to be freed from Egypt under this covenant was to have an obedient faith in God’s promises.
Deuteronomy 8:2 KJV 1900
2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and to prove thee, to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments, or no.
God took them out to prove them and to know what was in their heart.
Between Egypt and Sinai God gave them four tests of faith and obedience, and in each case they failed:
At the Red Sea (Exodus 14:10-12,31)
At the waters of Marah (Exodus 15:23-26)
In the Wilderness of Sin (Exodus 16:1-12)
At Rephidim (Exodus 17:1-7)
Only a few weeks removed from all the signs and miracles God did in Egypt and already they were exposed as faithless and evil.
Indeed, history shows them provoking God ten times (Numbers 14:22) even though they promised to obey all God’s commandments (Exodus 19:8).
Numbers 14:22 KJV 1900
22 Because all those men which have seen my glory, and my miracles, which I did in Egypt and in the wilderness, and have tempted me now these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice;
Exodus 19:8 KJV 1900
8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the Lord hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord.
In boasting that they would be able to keep the commandments of God themselves, rather than trusting in God, this generation fell from the heights of grace and faith to the ground of law and works.
God gave them a covenant of law and works to expose their utter helplessness and inability to keep covenant apart from the grace of God.
World Court
Under the Abrahamic Covenant God chose Israel out of the nations to be a model nation through which He could reveal His redemptive purposes, His character and His way of life to other nations.
Romans 3:19–20 KJV 1900
19 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. 20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.
Israel represented all other nations before God, and so Israel’s failure illustrated and confirmed the guilt of all the world.
Psalm 19:7–10 KJV 1900
7 The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart: The commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever: The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: Sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.
God gave the Mosaic Covenant to set forth the divine standard of righteousness.
Romans 7:7 KJV 1900
7 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.
To give a clear external difinition of sin because of the inadequacy of man’s conscience.
Galatians 3:22–25 KJV 1900
22 But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. 23 But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. 24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith. 25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.
To preserve the nation of Israel and the Messianic line, and to shut Israel up as a nation “in custody” under a schoolmaster and thus prepare them for the coming of the Messiah.
John 1:17 KJV 1900
17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
To illustrate the two major ways of God’s dealings with man, which are seen in perfect balance in His own being; Law and Grace.
Hebrews 10:1 KJV 1900
1 For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.
To foreshadow and typify all the truths of grace and redemption in the ceremonial law, and to typify the person and work of Jesus Christ.
Hebrews 9 and 10
To provide in the ceremonial law a temporary atonement (covering) for sin by which Israel could approach a holy and righteous God in worship and upon the basis of which He could dwell in their midst.
Galatians 3:10–14 KJV 1900
10 For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. 11 But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith. 12 And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them. 13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: 14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.
To show the world that none can be justified (made righteous) by the law, but only through faith in Jesus Christ.
Leviticus 18:5 KJV 1900
5 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the Lord.
To show that the Covenant of the Law could not give life, but that only the New Covenant “in Christ” can.
If it were possible to obey all the law, you could be saved by the law. This is impossible for us to do however. Only Christ was able to keep the law perfectly.

What Is The Relationship Of The Mosaic Covenant To The Abrahamic Covenant?

The Mosaic Covenant did not annul or replace the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant.
The Abrahamic Covenant had been made irrevocable by being confirmed with an oath.
The Mosaic Covenant was added to, or “placed alongside” the Abrahamic Covenant because of Israel’s failure under the old covenant.
Both covenants flow into the cross.
Their ceremonial elements being fulfilled and abolished and their spiritual and eternal elements being fulfilled in the New Covenant.
Hebrews 9:9–10 KJV 1900
9 Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience; 10 Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation.
The Mosaic Covenant was imposed or “laid upon” Israel to prefigure the person and work of Christ.
The Mosaic Covenant was temporal, only lasting until the time of the reformation, or the New Covenant.
The Abrahamic Covenant was the transcending, eternal covenant while the Mosaic Covenant was the temporary, additional covenant.

The Words Of The Covenant

The Mosaic Covenant contains more words than any other covenant given in Old Testament times. Divided into three categories:
The Moral Law
Also called “His Covenant” and “The Ten Words”
The Civil Law
Governed every area of Israel’s life; religious, civil, social, economic, legal and personal.
The Ceremonial Law
Governed the sacrifices, the priesthood, the sanctuary, and the festival occasions.
They provided for atonement of the sins of Israel, individually and nationally.
They foreshadowed the person and work of Jesus Christ.

The Promises Of The Covenant

Promises of Blessing
The promises of blessing contained in the Mosaic Covenant were primarily an addition of conditions to the receiving of the Abrahamic Covenant blessings (Deuteronomy 28:1-14)
Promises of Cursing
Deuteronomy 28:15-68

The Terms Of The Covenant

Under previous covenants the terms involved an obedience that arose out of faith. Under this covenant the term was an obedience that arose out of the works of self-effort.
Thus, faith obedience was replaced with a legal obedience.
Exodus 19:7–8 KJV 1900
7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the Lord commanded him. 8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the Lord hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord.
They didn’t even wait to hear what those words would be!
It was never God’s intention for mankind to fulfill the law by ourselves, but through the grace of God.
Israel demonstrated a complete lack of faith in God and in His promises, both coming out of Egypt, and in the wilderness. Now God would demonstrate that they would be unable to please God without His help.
The Ten Commandments
Relationship to God
No other gods before Him.
No graven images to be made or worshipped.
No taking the Name of the Lord in vain.
Keep the Sabbath day holy to the Lord
Relationship with man
Honor father and mother
No murder
No adultery
No stealing
No false witness
No coveting
Obedience — If they obeyed there would be blessing. If they did not, there would be cursing.
Only one who loved the Lord completely would be able to commit to this level of obedience.
Israel demonstrated that man did not have the ability to love God like this.
God demonstrated that He would have to change man’s heart so that we would be able to obey God.

The Blood Of The Covenant

The Sacrifice of the Covenant
The Body
Specific instructions were given about what was to happen to the body of the sacrifice:
Sometimes burnt upon the altar.
Other times burnt outside the camp.
Other times shared between priest and the one who offered the sacrifice.
The Blood
There were very specific instructions given also for the blood of the sacrifice.
Sometimes sprinkled upon the furnishings of the Tabernacle.
Most times offered upon the brazen altar.
On the Day of Atonement it was brought within the veil and sprinkled upon the Mercy Seat.
The Offerings
The Five Offerings
Voluntary Offerings
The Burnt Offering
The Meal Offering
The Peace Offering
Compulsory Offerings
The Sin Offering
The Trespass Offering
Two birds for the cleansing of leprosy
The Daily Sacrifices
The Sabbath Day Sacrifices
The Festival Sacrifices
The Sacrifice of the Red Heifer and the Waters of Purification.
Elaborate sacrificial system given for two major reasons:
To illustrate that no amount of continued animal sacrifices could effectively take away man’s sin.
It was to point to Christ’s perfect, sinless, and once-for-all sacrifice that could take away man’s sin.

The Mediator Of The Covenant

Though the Adamic, Noahic, And Abrahamic Covenants were characterized by patriarchal priesthood, the Mosaic Covenant gives the fullest demonstration of priesthood.
Moses - acted as the king of the people of Israel and thus became the mediator of the words of the covenant. He was the lawgiving mediator between God and Israel.
Aaron - acted as the priest of the people and thus became the mediator of the blood of the covenant. He was the atoning mediator between God and Israel.
Levites - God chose the tribe of Levi to minister before Him. To this tribe God gave the “covenant of priesthood.”
The dual king-priesthood of Moses and Aaron prefigured the priesthood of Christ after the order of Melchisedek.
The Levitical priesthood prefigured the priesthood of all born again believers in Jesus Christ.

The Sanctuary Of The Covenant

The Outer Court
The Holy Place
The Most Holy Place
All that pertained to the sacrifices, priesthood and sanctuary ministrations belonged to that division of the law known as the ceremonial law. At the establishing of the New Covenant by Jesus Christ, all that which pertained to the shadow of the ceremonial law was fulfilled and abolished. The spiritual reality in Christ remains.

The Seal Of The Covenant

Exodus 31:13 KJV 1900
13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the Lord that doth sanctify you.
The seal, or sign of the Mosaic Covenant is the keeping of the Sabbath.
There is no mention of keeping the Sabbath day from Adam to Moses. Under all previous covenants we have no mention of the Sabbath (about 2500 years!)
Genesis 2:3 mentions the seventh day being blessed and sanctified by God, but no further instruction about observing it.
The first specific mention of keeping Sabbath is found in Exodus 16:23-26 concerning the gathering of the daily manna and this was spoken to the nation of Israel.
The keeping of the Sabbath was the fourth commandment of the Moral Law (or the Ten Commandments, or the Decalogue) given to Israel at Mount Sinai.
There were other Sabbaths given to Israel besides the weekly Sabbath (Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacles)
The land also had her Sabbaths. Every seventh year and every fiftieth year were Sabbaths of rest for the land.
Related Media
See more
Related Sermons
See more