Behold What Manner of Love (Outline)

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1 John 3:1





The readers are believers (3:1–2) of Gentile background (5:21). Because John spent his later years at Ephesus, it is likely that the letter was written from that city to a nearby group of Asian churches with which John was personally acquainted. The supposition of Augustine that the churches of Parthia are in mind has no foundation and probably arose from a corruption of the text.

False teachers appeared in the church (4:1) who drew some professing Christians from fellowship with true believers (2:19). The false teachers claimed a special illumination by the Spirit (2:27) that imparted a deeper spiritual knowledge. John combats this error by emphasizing the source and nature of true knowledge (2:3, 5; 3:16, 19, 24; 4:2, 6, 13; 5:2). The opponents also claimed to have reached a state of moral perfection (1:8–10). This ethical error brought pride and haughtiness, and John combats such attitudes by placing a strong emphasis on love for the brethren (4:7–21).

The major error among the readers was a denial of the incarnation of Christ (2:22; 4:2–3). This reflects an early form of Gnosticism known as Docetism, which claimed that Christ only “seemed” to take on an earthly human form. Many went farther to deny the reality of Christ’s sufferings. In refuting the heresy, John did not attack the false teachers but carefully expounded the truth, encouraging his readers to continue in the faith and live consistent Christian lives with an awareness and concern for the errors that surrounded them.


The author is not named in the letter. He claims to have been an eyewitness of the life and ministry of Christ (1:1). He expects not only to be heard but obeyed (4:6). Most scholars recognize the similarity in thought, vocabulary, and style between the Gospel of John and 1 John. Both works contain expressions such as “light,” “love,” “eternal life,” “truth,” “witness,” “live,” “comforter,” “new commandment,” “begotten of God,” and “Savior of the world.” Early church fathers such as Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, and later, Tertullian support John’s authorship. See the Guiding Concepts section for the Gospel of John.


The date is related to the date assigned to John’s Gospel (a.d. 85–90). First John was probably written after John’s Gospel because the author seems to assume an acquaintance on the part of the readers with the facts of his Gospel. The absence of any reference to persecution may indicate that the letter was written before the persecution of Domitian (a.d. 81–96) against the church (ca. a.d. 95). The letter should probably be dated after John’s Gospel, around a.d. 90.


This first letter by John was designed to combat false teaching by a clear presentation of the truth. The primary purpose was to promote Christian fellowship (1:3) and knowledge in Christian truth and experience (5:13). John sought to promote fellowship in the family of God through instruction in true knowledge and by encouraging the believers in their love for one another.[1]


(3:1) “Behold” is plural here, literally, “behold ye.” The usual form is singular. John is calling upon all the saints to wonder at the particular kind of love God has bestowed upon them.


what manner

what (1), what manner (5), What manner of man (1)

Matt 8:27 But the men marvelled, saying,   What manner of man  is this, that even the winds and …
Mark 13:1 …of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see   what manner  of stones and what buildings are here! …
…him, Master, see what manner of stones and   what  buildings are here!
Luke 1:29 …at his saying, and cast in her mind   what manner  of salutation this should be.
Luke 7:39 …were a prophet, would have known who and   what manner  of woman this is that toucheth him: …
2 Pet 3:11 …then that all these things shall be dissolved,   what manner  of persons ought ye to be in …
1 John 3:1 Behold,   what manner  of love the Father hath bestowed upon …

“What manner of” is potapēn (ποταπην), “from what country, race or tribe?” The word speaks of something foreign. The translation could read, “Behold, what foreign kind of love the Father has bestowed upon us.” The love of God is foreign to the human race. It is not found naturally in humanity. When it exists there, it is in a saved individual, and by reason of the ministry of the Holy Spirit. Smith suggests, “from what far realm? What unearthly love,… how other-worldly.”[3]

Behold what manner of love! Ποταπός; literally, “of what country,” in the New Testament always implies amazement (Matt. 8:27; Mark 13:1; Luke 1:29; 7:39; 2 Pet. 3:11); but, as the original meaning leads us to expect, it implies marvellous quality rather than marvellous size.[4]

The adjective potapēn translated “how great” (NIV) or “what manner” (KJV), which occurs only seven times in the New Testament, always implies astonishment. Admiration is usually conveyed as well.329 Being a child of God stirs within John a sense of wonder, awe, and amazement. The expression carries both a qualitative and quantitative force, “what glorious, measureless love.”330 Originally, the adjective meant “of what country.” Stott captures this original sense when he writes, “The Father’s love is so unearthly, so foreign to this world, that [John] wonders from what country it may come.”331 God’s love is foreign to humankind in that we cannot understand the magnitude of such love. It astonishes, amazes, and creates wonder within those who properly reflect upon it.

John claims that this love is divine in nature. It is a love that originates only with the Father. As Hiebert states: “This love, originating with God, ever seeks the true welfare of those being loved; it is amazing indeed when we remember the personal destitution of those He loves. God’s is a love that works visible, transforming results in the lives of its recipients.”332 Burdick adds: “God loves the sinner, not because He is drawn to him by his lovableness, but because, in spite of man’s unloveliness, God sets His mind and will on seeking man’s highest good. This is what is amazing about God’s love.”333 It is a divine, initiated love that is active, for it seeks to bring sinners into the family of God. [5]

of love

“Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us.” Consider who we were, and what we feel ourselves to be even now when corruption is powerful in us, and you will wonder at our adoption. Yet we are called “the sons of God.” What a high relationship is that of a son, and what privileges it brings! What care and tenderness the son expects from his father, and what love the father feels towards the son! But all that, and more than that, we now have through Christ. As for the temporary drawback of suffering with the elder brother, this we accept as an honour: “Therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not.” We are content to be unknown with him in his humiliation, for we are to be exalted with him. “Beloved, now are we the sons of God.” That is easy to read, but it is not so easy to feel. How is it with your heart this morning? Are you in the lowest depths of sorrow? Does corruption rise within your spirit, and grace seem like a poor spark trampled under foot? Does your faith almost fail you? Fear not, it is neither your graces nor feelings on which you are to live: you must live simply by faith on Christ. With all these things against us, now—in the very depths of our sorrow, wherever we may be—now, as much in the valley as on the mountain, “Beloved, now are we the sons of God.” “Ah, but,” you say, “see how I am arrayed! my graces are not bright; my righteousness does not shine with apparent glory.” But read the next: “It doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him.” The Holy Spirit shall purify our minds, and divine power shall refine our bodies, then shall we see him as he is. [6]

I. Eros

A. This is physical, carnal, passionate, erotic, fleshly love. We are afraid of this in general. When was the last time you seriously studied the Song of Solomon? Are you embarrassed to study it? Why?

B. There is an illusion about romantic love. You fall .in. and .out. of love. You do not apply this to family love or friendship. Falling in love is temporary. The honeymoon ends and reality sets in.

1. The myth of romantic love is that marriage is the answer: .My future mate will meet my needs and make me happy.. This is futile.

2. If you are not happy being single, you will not be happy being married. There are some needs others cannot bring.

3. The .Marriage Box.. Moderns believe in marriage as a gift-wrapped beautiful box to which we daily go and reach into to receive our daily blessing. This is wrong! The .Marriage Box. is a common pasteboard box in which mates bring gifts daily. Marriage cannot bless or curse; it is neutral. Marriage is what two people make it be.

II. Storge

A. This is natural, kin, the humblest of loves. We love each other simply because we are of the family.

B. It is negative in Romans 1:31 and 2 Timothy 3:3, used regarding homosexuals.

C. It is used in withdrawal in 2 Timothy 3:14, 15. Withdrawal is not excommunication, putting one out of the church. It is what it says, withdrawal of fellowship.


III. Phileo

A. This is tender affection and brotherly love. (Philadelphia is the city of .brotherly love..)

B. However, sometimes we make too clear a distinction between phileo and agape. Be careful. There are surprises. Read Titus 2:3, 4; Romans 12:9, 10; 1 Corinthians 16:22; Hebrews 13:1; John 16:27; and 1 Peter 1:22. Phileo and agape  are both used in the same reference. First Thessalonians 4:9 is phileo,  not agape. Luke 15:20 (.kissed him.) is phileo. The Elder Son refused to accept or give love.

C. Conclusion time is here.  A great marriage can only exist among strong mates, not one

strong and one weak or two weak mates. Tough love is strong love.


IV. Agape

A. This is in the will, not the emotion. It is commanded. It is not .like,. but love. Agape is the course of active good will even to enemies. We are to love even where we do not like.

B. Agape  is the permanent key to all healthy relationships. I will love you, period! Notice John 3:16; 13:34, 35; 15:12; Matthew 5:43-48; 22:36-39; Romans 12:9; 13:10; 1 Corinthians 13; Colossians 3:14; 1 John 3:18; 1 Peter 4:8; 2 Peter 2:15; and Jude 12 (agape love feasts).

C. However, love must become more than that willed! It is pathetic for husbands and wives

Description of love

      4. suffereth long—under provocations of evil from others. The negative side of love.

is kind—the positive side. Extending good to others. Compare with love’s features here those of the “wisdom from above” (Jam 3:17).

envieth—The Greek includes also jealousy.

vaunteth not—in words, even of gifts which it really possesses; an indirect rebuke of those at Corinth who used the gift of tongues for mere display.

not puffed up—with party zeal, as some at Corinth were (1Co 4:6).

5. not … unseemlyis not uncourteous, or inattentive to civility and propriety.

thinketh no evilimputeth not evil [Alford]; literally, “the evil” which actually is there (Pr 10:12; 1Pe 4:8). Love makes allowances for the falls of others, and is ready to put on them a charitable construction. Love, so far from devising evil against another, excuses “the evil” which another inflicts on her [Estius]; doth not meditate upon evil inflicted by another [Bengel]; and in doubtful cases, takes the more charitable view [Grotius].

6. rejoiceth in the truth—rather, “rejoiceth with the truth.” Exults not at the perpetration of iniquity (unrighteousness) by others (compare Ge 9:22, 23), but rejoices when the truth rejoices; sympathizes with it in its triumphs (2Jn 1:4). See the opposite (2Ti 3:8), “Resist the truth.” So “the truth” and “unrighteousness” are contrasted (Ro 2:8). “The truth” is the Gospel truth, the inseparable ally of love (Eph 4:15; 2Jn 1:12). The false charity which compromises “the truth” by glossing over “iniquity” or unrighteousness is thus tacitly condemned (Pr 17:15).

7. Beareth all things—without speaking of what it has to bear. The same Greek verb as in 1Co 9:12. It endures without divulging to the world personal distress. Literally said of holding fast like a watertight vessel; so the charitable man contains himself in silence from giving vent to what selfishness would prompt under personal hardship.

believeth all things—unsuspiciously believes all that is not palpably false, all that it can with a good conscience believe to the credit of another. Compare Jam 3:17, “easy to be entreated”; Greek, “easily persuaded.”

hopeth—what is good of another, even when others have ceased to hope.

endureth—persecutions in a patient and loving spirit.

8. never faileth—never is to be out of use; it always holds its place.

shall fail … vanish away—The same Greek verb is used for both; and that different from the Greek verb for “faileth.” Translate, “Shall be done away with,” that is, shall be dispensed with at the Lord’s coming, being superseded by their more perfect heavenly analogues; for instance, knowledge by intuition. Of “tongues,” which are still more temporary, the verb is “shall cease.” A primary fulfilment of Paul’s statement took place when the Church attained its maturity; then “tongues” entirely “ceased,” and “prophesyings” and “knowledge,” so far as they were supernatural gifts of the Spirit, were superseded as no longer required when the ordinary preaching of the word, and the Scriptures of the New Testament collected together, had become established institutions.


to not also have eros, storge, and phileo! Read 1 Corinthians 7. Agape is there but these other loves remove it from being cold and mechanical.[8]

the Father

If a man does not understand how God can love him, do not discuss it, but turn to First Corinthians, the thirteenth chapter, and read it slowly and thoughtfully. Always begin that chapter with the last verse of the twelfth: “And yet show I unto you a more excellent way.” Change the word “charity” to “love.” When you get to the fourth verse, intersperse a remark such as this: “Have you ever read anything more wonderful than this: ‘Love suffereth long and is kind, love envieth not, love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil.’ ” Why, each verse of this wonderful chapter will grow more and more impressive as one reads on. Then read through the first verse of chapter fourteen, which gives us the admonition, “Follow after love and desire spiritual gifts.” Ask a man if such attainment as this isn’t worth while. Turn before he answers to John three, sixteen: “For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” “For God came not into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.”

In other words win a man by the love of God. Before he can question again, ask him to turn, or better, take his Bible and turn for him, to Luke the fifteenth chapter, and beginning with the eleventh verse, read together the parable of the Prodigal Son. Then quickly and easily turn to First John, the third chapter: “Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God. Therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew Him not.” Read on a way in that chapter, and then turn over to the fifth chapter and read there. Then turn to Revelation three, twenty, and read: “Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if any man hear My voice and open the door, I will come in to him and he to Me, and he shall go in and out and find pasture.”[9]

 hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called

7.     The love of God Exhibited in…

a.     The giving of Christ. Joh 3:16.

b.     The sending of Christ. 1Jo 4:9.

c.     Christ’s dying for us while sinners. Ro 5:8; 1Jo 4:10.

d.     Election. Mal 1:2,3; Ro 9:11-13.

e.     Adoption. 1Jo 3:1.

f.     Redemption. Isa 43:3,4; 63:9.

g.     Freeness of salvation. Tit 3:4-7.

h.     Forgiving sin. Isa 38:17.

i.     Quickening of souls. Eph 2:4,5.

j.     Drawing us to himself. Ho 11:4.

k.     Temporal blessings. De 7:13.

l.     Chastisements. Heb 12:6.

m.     Defeating evil counsels. De 23:5. [10]

whenever a man sins, it is not according to love: but it is according to cupidity that he commits sin; and following such a disposition, he is not born of God. [11]

Love is not a mere attribute of God; like light, it is his very nature. As “God is Light” sums up the Being of God intellectually considered, so “God is Love” sums up the same on the moral aide. Only when this strong meaning is given to the statement does St. John’s argument hold, that “he that loveth not knoweth not God.” A man who has no idea of any one of the attributes of God, as order, or beauty, or power, or justice, has an imperfect knowledge of God. But he who has no idea of love has no knowledge of God, for love is himself. God alone loves in the fullest and highest sense of the word; for he alone loves with perfect disinterestedness. It is love which alone can explain creation. Why should a Being perfectly blessed in himself create other beings, but to bestow a blessing upon them?[12]

the sons of God:

8:15-17. In contrast with the control of sin, which enslaves to the point of fear, believers have received the Spirit of sonship. The word translated “sonship” (huiothesias) means “placing as a son” and is frequently translated “adoption” (as in, e.g., v. 23). Believers are adopted sons (Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5), not slaves (Gal. 4:7); so they need not be enslaved to sin or in fear. [13]

In the New Testament this phrase frequently denotes the relation into which we are brought to God by adoption (Rom. 8:14, 19; 2 Cor. 6:18; Gal. 4:5, 6; Phil. 2:15; 1 John 3:1, 2). It occurs thirty-seven times in the New Testament as the distinctive title of our Saviour. He does not bear this title in consequence of his miraculous birth, nor of his incarnation, his resurrection, and exaltation to the Father’s right hand. This is a title of nature and not of office. The sonship of Christ denotes his equality with the Father. To call Christ the Son of God is to assert his true and proper divinity. The second Person of the Trinity, because of his eternal relation to the first Person, is the Son of God. He is the Son of God as to his divine nature, while as to his human nature he is the Son of David (Rom. 1:3, 4. Comp. Gal. 4:4; John 1:1–14; 5:18–25; 10:30–38, which prove that Christ was the Son of God before his incarnation, and that his claim to this title is a claim of equality with God). [14]

children of God, a term used by early Christians to mark their special relationship as ‘adopted’ heirs of the promises made by God to Israel (Rom. 8:16-17, 21; Phil. 2:15; John 1:12; and ironically in John 11:52). It may have been the common designation for Christians in the Johannine community (1 John 3:1, 2, 10; 5:2). [15]

Children of God-Our Eternal Status

The New Testament develops a theme that is latent in the Old Testament -the theme of saints being sons of God. John, in its prologue, reveals that a prime purpose in Jesus Christ’s earthly ministry was to confer the right to become ‘children of God’ on those who believe in Him (John 1:12). This theme is extensive in the New Testament,111 and obviously underlies the doctrine of adoption as sons developed in Gal 4:5–7 and elsewhere. Indeed, John 11:52 and Heb 2:13 teach that Jesus gathers into one the children of God who are scattered throughout the world, so it is clear that a central purpose of His ministry is putting together the family that God desires for eternity. This is why, early in His earthly ministry, He referred to God as the Father of believers (Matt 6:4), and gave them the right to call Him ‘Father’ (Matt 6:9).

Our elevation to this lofty status seems fully logical, for it would seem inappropriate for God’s sons to be of lowlier stock than the servant class, and angels were created to serve us (Heb 1:14). Now, as God is the King of Kings beyond compare, that means His sons are indeed all princes! This is why Psalm 16:3 calls the saints ‘majestic ones,’ thus alluding to our eternal elevated status as God’s sons. So in the regeneration, those who were made a little lower than the angels (Psalm 8:4–6; Heb 2:5–10) will become higher than the angels, eternally. As sons of God, saints must obviously be more elevated than angels who were created ministering spirits, which is why I Cor 6:3 and Heb 2:5–8 tell us we will be their superiors.112 In other words, we are assured of becoming the highest order in God’s New Creation; this is why all sensible creation anxiously awaits the unveiling of God’s adopted sons, this marvelous brand-new specie in God’s creation (Rom 8:19). All creation waits with bated breath for our manifestation!

So one marvelous blessing God has in store for believing man is that in the regeneration he will be the highest order of God’s new creation. Now angels are most impressive persons, much more spiritual intelligent than man, and significantly more powerful. Yet the lowliest saint will be superior to the most magnificent archangel! This, too, explains why Psalm 82:6 says of the saints: “You are all gods; all of you are sons of the Most High!” If God truly adopts us as His sons (and He assuredly does), then we are indeed ‘sons of the Most High.’ So at our resurrection, all saints will be reconstituted more glorious, intelligent, and powerful than the most magnificent angel; a new order of beings, ‘sons of the most High’! Oh what gracious felicity!!!

One of Jesus’ purposes is to bring many sons to glory (Heb 2:10; John 1:12; Matt 5:9; Luke 20:36). Jesus Christ is the forerunner of this magnificent new order of creation, and all who enter its ranks do so as a result of His provision (John 1:12). Hebrews 1:14 read with 2:7–8 indicate that in the fall man was placed under the angels (God stationed cherubim [superior angelic beings] to keep man from the tree of life [Gen 3:24]), but that regenerate man will be returned to his earlier position (Heb 2:5–8, 10, 13) in the regeneration which commences with the resurrection of the righteous (Luke 20:36). In Adam’s creation he was a son of God (Luke 3:38), but when he sinned he lost his position; this is why the last Adam (Jesus Christ) restores men of faith by giving them back the spiritual life that the first Adam lost in the fall (I Cor 15:45).[16]

Adoption in the NT has as its background not Roman law, in which its chief aim was to continue the adoptive parent’s line, but Jewish custom, which conferred the benefits of the family on the adoptee. It occurs only in Paul, and is a relationship conferred by God’s act of free grace which redeems those under the law (Gal. 4:5). Its intention and result is a change of status, planned from eternity and mediated by Jesus Christ (Eph. 1:5), from slavery to sonship (Gal. 4:1ff.). The cry ‘Abba! Father!’ (Rom. 8:15 and Gal. 4:6; in the context of adoption) may perhaps be the traditional cry of the adopted slave. The adopted son of God possesses all family rights, including access to the Father (Rom. 8:15) and sharing with Christ in the divine inheritance (Rom. 8:17). The presence of the Spirit of God is both the instrument (Rom. 8:14) and the consequence (Gal. 4:6) of this sonship. However complete in status this adoption may be, it has yet to be finally made real in the deliverance of the creation itself from bondage (Rom. 8:21ff.).

Adoption is implicit as a relationship of grace in John’s teaching about ‘becoming a son’ (Jn. 1:12; 1 Jn. 3:1-2), in the prodigal’s acceptance into full family rights (Lk. 15:19ff.) and in Jesus’ oft-repeated title of God as Father (Mt. 5:16; 6:9; Lk. 12:32). [17]

Vers. 22, 23.—Israel a type of sonship. Consider—1. The condescension of God in the establishing of this relationship. A nation of slaves; in the eyes of the Egyptians little better than a nation of lepers; yet Jehovah says of them, “Israel is my son, my firstborn.” “Behold what manner of love,” etc. (1 John 3:1). 2. The privileges implied in it. On this cf. Deut. 1:31–34; 8:2–6; 32:9–15. Reflect how Israel was led, fed, guided, trained, chastened, delivered from enemies, and conducted to a bountiful inheritance. These privileges have all their counterparts in the experience of the “children of God by faith in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:26). 3. The responsibilities it imposed on others. Because Israel was God’s son, his firstborn Pharaoh was to refrain from oppressing his son, and if he did not he would be smitten in his own firstborn. (1) As men treat God’s children so will God treat them. He notes, and he will reward, kindnesses done to his sons, and he will avenge their wrongs. (2) God’s children may safely leave the avenging of their wrongs to God. It is not their work, but his, to avenge them; the rule for them is to avenge not themselves, but rather to give place to wrath; heaping coals of fire on the head of the enemy by returning him good for his evil (Rom. 12:19–21).—J. O.[18]

 therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not.

The love of God is greater far than tongue or pen can ever tell,

It goes beyond the highest star and reaches to the lowest hell,

The guilty pair, bowed down with care, God gave His Son to win:

His erring child He reconciled and pardoned from his sin.

When years of time shall pass away and earthly thrones and kingdoms fall,

When men, who here refuse to pray, on rocks and hills and mountains call,

God’s love so sure shall still endure, all measureless and strong:

Redeeming grace to Adam’s race—the saints’ and angels’ song.

Could we with ink the ocean fill and were the skies of parchment made,

Were ev’ry stalk on earth a quill and ev’ry man a scribe by trade

To write the love of God above would drain the ocean dry,

Nor could the scroll contain the whole tho stretched from sky to sky.

Chorus: O love of God, how rich and pure! How measureless and strong! It shall forevermore endure—the saints’ and angels’ song.[19]


[1]Robert B. Hughes and J. Carl Laney, Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary, Rev. Ed. of: New Bible Companion. 1990.; Includes Index., The Tyndale reference library (Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, 2001), 703.

[2]Kenneth S. Wuest, Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament : For the English Reader (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997, c1984), 1 Jn 2:29-3:1.

[3]Kenneth S. Wuest, Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament : For the English Reader (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997, c1984), 1 Jn 3:1.

[4]The Pulpit Commentary: 1 John, ed. H. D. M. Spence-Jones (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2004), 70.

NIV New International Version

329 The word occurs in Matt 8:27; Mark 13:1 (2x); Luke 1:29; 7:39; 2 Pet 3:11; and 1 John 3:1. See Plummer, Epistles of S. John, 71.

330 Hiebert, Epistles of John, 133.

331 Stott, Letters of John, 122.

332 Hiebert, Epistles of John, 133.

333 Burdick, The Letters of John the Apostle, 230.

[5]Daniel L. Akin, vol. 38, 1, 2, 3 John, electronic ed., Logos Library System; The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001, c2001), 132.

[6]Charles H. Spurgeon, Morning and Evening : Daily Readings, Complete and unabridged; New modern edition. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006), February 13 AM.

[7]Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, A. R. Fausset et al., A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, On Spine: Critical and Explanatory Commentary. (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), 1 Co 13:4.

[8] Charles B. Hodge, Jr.

[9]The Fundamentals : The Famous Sourcebook of Foundational Biblical Truths, 3:184-185.

[10]R.A. Torrey, The New Topical Text Book : A Scriptural Text Book for the Use of Ministers, Teachers, and All Christian Workers (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos research Systems, Inc., 1995, c1897).

[11]Philip Schaff, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Vol. V, Saint Augustin: Anti-Pelagian Writings. (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, 1997), 225.

[12]The Pulpit Commentary: 1 John, ed. H. D. M. Spence-Jones (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2004), 103.

[13]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:471.

[14]M.G. Easton, Easton's Bible Dictionary (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996, c1897).

[15]Paul J. Achtemeier, Publishers Harper & Row and Society of Biblical Literature, Harper's Bible Dictionary, Includes Index., 1st ed. (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985), 162.

111 111     Christians are called ‘sons of God’in Matt 5:9, 45; 8:12; 13:38; Luke 6:35; 20:36; Rom 8:14–15, 19, 23; 9:4, 26; II Cor 6:18; Gal 3:26; 4:5–7; Eph 1:5; Heb 2:10; 12:5–8; Rev 21:7; and ‘children of God’in John 1:12; 11:52; Rom 8:16–17, 21; 9:8; Phil 2:15; Heb 2:13; I John 3:1, 2, 10; 4:4; 5:2.

112 112     This teaching stems from Jesus’remark to the seventy that the ‘spirits’(not ‘demons’) are subject to believers (Luke 10:20).

[16]M.S. Mills, The Life of Christ : A Study Guide to the Gospel Record, Three Volumes: 1. The Advent of Jesus 2. The Beginning of the Gospel 3. Jesus Presents Himself Ot Israel. (Dallas: 3E Ministries, 1999).

NT New Testament

ff and the following (verses, etc.)

[17]D. R. W. Wood and I. Howard Marshall, New Bible Dictionary, 3rd ed. (Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1996), 16.

[18]The Pulpit Commentary: Exodus Vol. I, ed. H. D. M. Spence-Jones (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2004), 106.

[19]Kenneth W. Osbeck, Amazing Grace : 366 Inspiring Hymn Stories for Daily Devotions, Includes Indexes. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel Publications, 1990), 47.

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