Introduction to Old Testament Studies: Deuteronomic History - 1 & 2 Samuel

Introduction to Old Testament Studies  •  Sermon  •  Submitted   •  Presented   •  52:40
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Part of the Deuteronomistic History, which means it has an affinity with Deuteronomy.
In the Protestant Bible it is Part of the History. It follows the conquest of the Land (Joshua) and the settlement of the Land (Judges). Provided a bridge between the Judges and the monarchy.
Writer is anonymous. Not written by Samuel. It is named for the first main character in the book, which is Samuel.

Main Characters in Samuel


3 Primary characters of 1st Samuel


2 Samuel main character


Birth and Call of Samuel

1 Samuel 1–3 CSB
1 There was a man from Ramathaim-zophim in the hill country of Ephraim. His name was Elkanah son of Jeroham, son of Elihu, son of Tohu, son of Zuph, an Ephraimite. 2 He had two wives, the first named Hannah and the second Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah was childless. 3 This man would go up from his town every year to worship and to sacrifice to the Lord of Armies at Shiloh, where Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, were the Lord’s priests. 4 Whenever Elkanah offered a sacrifice, he always gave portions of the meat to his wife Peninnah and to each of her sons and daughters. 5 But he gave a double portion to Hannah, for he loved her even though the Lord had kept her from conceiving. 6 Her rival would taunt her severely just to provoke her, because the Lord had kept Hannah from conceiving. 7 Year after year, when she went up to the Lord’s house, her rival taunted her in this way. Hannah would weep and would not eat. 8 “Hannah, why are you crying?” her husband, Elkanah, would ask. “Why won’t you eat? Why are you troubled? Am I not better to you than ten sons?” 9 On one occasion, Hannah got up after they ate and drank at Shiloh. The priest Eli was sitting on a chair by the doorpost of the Lord’s temple. 10 Deeply hurt, Hannah prayed to the Lord and wept with many tears. 11 Making a vow, she pleaded, “Lord of Armies, if you will take notice of your servant’s affliction, remember and not forget me, and give your servant a son, I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and his hair will never be cut.” 12 While she continued praying in the Lord’s presence, Eli watched her mouth. 13 Hannah was praying silently, and though her lips were moving, her voice could not be heard. Eli thought she was drunk 14 and said to her, “How long are you going to be drunk? Get rid of your wine!” 15 “No, my lord,” Hannah replied. “I am a woman with a broken heart. I haven’t had any wine or beer; I’ve been pouring out my heart before the Lord. 16 Don’t think of me as a wicked woman; I’ve been praying from the depth of my anguish and resentment.” 17 Eli responded, “Go in peace, and may the God of Israel grant the request you’ve made of him.” 18 “May your servant find favor with you,” she replied. Then Hannah went on her way; she ate and no longer looked despondent. 19 The next morning Elkanah and Hannah got up early to worship before the Lord. Afterward, they returned home to Ramah. Then Elkanah was intimate with his wife Hannah, and the Lord remembered her. 20 After some time, Hannah conceived and gave birth to a son. She named him Samuel, because she said, “I requested him from the Lord.” 21 When Elkanah and all his household went up to make the annual sacrifice and his vow offering to the Lord, 22 Hannah did not go and explained to her husband, “After the child is weaned, I’ll take him to appear in the Lord’s presence and to stay there permanently.” 23 Her husband, Elkanah, replied, “Do what you think is best, and stay here until you’ve weaned him. May the Lord confirm your word.” So Hannah stayed there and nursed her son until she weaned him. 24 When she had weaned him, she took him with her to Shiloh, as well as a three-year-old bull, half a bushel of flour, and a clay jar of wine. Though the boy was still young, she took him to the Lord’s house at Shiloh. 25 Then they slaughtered the bull and brought the boy to Eli. 26 “Please, my lord,” she said, “as surely as you live, my lord, I am the woman who stood here beside you praying to the Lord. 27 I prayed for this boy, and since the Lord gave me what I asked him for, 28 I now give the boy to the Lord. For as long as he lives, he is given to the Lord.” Then he worshiped the Lord there. 1 Hannah prayed: My heart rejoices in the Lord; my horn is lifted up by the Lord. My mouth boasts over my enemies, because I rejoice in your salvation. 2 There is no one holy like the Lord. There is no one besides you! And there is no rock like our God. 3 Do not boast so proudly, or let arrogant words come out of your mouth, for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and actions are weighed by him. 4 The bows of the warriors are broken, but the feeble are clothed with strength. 5 Those who are full hire themselves out for food, but those who are starving hunger no more. The woman who is childless gives birth to seven, but the woman with many sons pines away. 6 The Lord brings death and gives life; he sends some down to Sheol, and he raises others up. 7 The Lord brings poverty and gives wealth; he humbles and he exalts. 8 He raises the poor from the dust and lifts the needy from the trash heap. He seats them with noblemen and gives them a throne of honor. For the foundations of the earth are the Lord’s; he has set the world on them. 9 He guards the steps of his faithful ones, but the wicked perish in darkness, for a person does not prevail by his own strength. 10 Those who oppose the Lord will be shattered; he will thunder in the heavens against them. The Lord will judge the ends of the earth. He will give power to his king; he will lift up the horn of his anointed. 11 Elkanah went home to Ramah, but the boy served the Lord in the presence of the priest Eli. 12 Eli’s sons were wicked men; they did not respect the Lord 13 or the priests’ share of the sacrifices from the people. When anyone offered a sacrifice, the priest’s servant would come with a three-pronged meat fork while the meat was boiling 14 and plunge it into the container, kettle, cauldron, or cooking pot. The priest would claim for himself whatever the meat fork brought up. This is the way they treated all the Israelites who came there to Shiloh. 15 Even before the fat was burned, the priest’s servant would come and say to the one who was sacrificing, “Give the priest some meat to roast, because he won’t accept boiled meat from you—only raw.” 16 If that person said to him, “The fat must be burned first; then you can take whatever you want for yourself,” the servant would reply, “No, I insist that you hand it over right now. If you don’t, I’ll take it by force!” 17 So the servants’ sin was very severe in the presence of the Lord, because the men treated the Lord’s offering with contempt. 18 Samuel served in the Lord’s presence—this mere boy was dressed in the linen ephod. 19 Each year his mother made him a little robe and took it to him when she went with her husband to offer the annual sacrifice. 20 Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife: “May the Lord give you children by this woman in place of the one she has given to the Lord.” Then they would go home. 21 The Lord paid attention to Hannah’s need, and she conceived and gave birth to three sons and two daughters. Meanwhile, the boy Samuel grew up in the presence of the Lord. 22 Now Eli was very old. He heard about everything his sons were doing to all Israel and how they were sleeping with the women who served at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 23 He said to them, “Why are you doing these things? I have heard about your evil actions from all these people. 24 No, my sons, the news I hear the Lord’s people spreading is not good. 25 If one person sins against another, God can intercede for him, but if a person sins against the Lord, who can intercede for him?” But they would not listen to their father, since the Lord intended to kill them. 26 By contrast, the boy Samuel grew in stature and in favor with the Lord and with people. 27 A man of God came to Eli and said to him, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Didn’t I reveal myself to your forefather’s family when they were in Egypt and belonged to Pharaoh’s palace? 28 Out of all the tribes of Israel, I chose your house to be my priests, to offer sacrifices on my altar, to burn incense, and to wear an ephod in my presence. I also gave your forefather’s family all the Israelite food offerings. 29 Why, then, do all of you despise my sacrifices and offerings that I require at the place of worship? You have honored your sons more than me, by making yourselves fat with the best part of all of the offerings of my people Israel.’ 30 “Therefore, this is the declaration of the Lord, the God of Israel: ‘I did say that your family and your forefather’s family would walk before me forever. But now,’ this is the Lord’s declaration, ‘no longer! For those who honor me I will honor, but those who despise me will be disgraced. 31 Look, the days are coming when I will cut off your strength and the strength of your forefather’s family, so that none in your family will reach old age. 32 You will see distress in the place of worship, in spite of all that is good in Israel, and no one in your family will ever again reach old age. 33 Any man from your family I do not cut off from my altar will bring grief and sadness to you. All your descendants will die violently. 34 This will be the sign that will come to you concerning your two sons Hophni and Phinehas: both of them will die on the same day. 35 “ ‘Then I will raise up a faithful priest for myself. He will do whatever is in my heart and mind. I will establish a lasting dynasty for him, and he will walk before my anointed one for all time. 36 Anyone who is left in your family will come and bow down to him for a piece of silver or a loaf of bread. He will say: Please appoint me to some priestly office so I can have a piece of bread to eat.’ ” 1 The boy Samuel served the Lord in Eli’s presence. In those days the word of the Lord was rare and prophetic visions were not widespread. 2 One day Eli, whose eyesight was failing, was lying in his usual place. 3 Before the lamp of God had gone out, Samuel was lying down in the temple of the Lord, where the ark of God was located. 4 Then the Lord called Samuel, and he answered, “Here I am.” 5 He ran to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.” “I didn’t call,” Eli replied. “Go back and lie down.” So he went and lay down. 6 Once again the Lord called, “Samuel!” Samuel got up, went to Eli, and said, “Here I am; you called me.” “I didn’t call, my son,” he replied. “Go back and lie down.” 7 Now Samuel did not yet know the Lord, because the word of the Lord had not yet been revealed to him. 8 Once again, for the third time, the Lord called Samuel. He got up, went to Eli, and said, “Here I am; you called me.” Then Eli understood that the Lord was calling the boy. 9 He told Samuel, “Go and lie down. If he calls you, say, ‘Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.’ ” So Samuel went and lay down in his place. 10 The Lord came, stood there, and called as before, “Samuel, Samuel!” Samuel responded, “Speak, for your servant is listening.” 11 The Lord said to Samuel, “I am about to do something in Israel that will cause everyone who hears about it to shudder. 12 On that day I will carry out against Eli everything I said about his family, from beginning to end. 13 I told him that I am going to judge his family forever because of the iniquity he knows about: his sons are cursing God, and he has not stopped them. 14 Therefore, I have sworn to Eli’s family: The iniquity of Eli’s family will never be wiped out by either sacrifice or offering.” 15 Samuel lay down until the morning; then he opened the doors of the Lord’s house. He was afraid to tell Eli the vision, 16 but Eli called him and said, “Samuel, my son.” “Here I am,” answered Samuel. 17 “What was the message he gave you?” Eli asked. “Don’t hide it from me. May God punish you and do so severely if you hide anything from me that he told you.” 18 So Samuel told him everything and did not hide anything from him. Eli responded, “He is the Lord. Let him do what he thinks is good.” 19 Samuel grew. The Lord was with him, and he fulfilled everything Samuel prophesied. 20 All Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba knew that Samuel was a confirmed prophet of the Lord. 21 The Lord continued to appear in Shiloh, because there he revealed himself to Samuel by his word.
Birth and call of Samuel


Elkanah Father of Samuel
Two Wives
Hannah is the favorite of the two women, but she is barren. (I hope you are seeing the pattern). Penninah is very fruitful. She torments Hannah because of it.
During one of the yearly trips to Shiloh for a festival. Hannah goes to the temple to pray. She prays so earnestly that Eli thinks she is drunk.
Eli the Head priest of Shiloh. When Eli goes to scold her for being drunk, She tells him of her distress. He tells her God will hear her prayers, And Go in Peace.
Sounds like platitudes but She becomes pregnant. Names him Samuel, “Heard from God”.

Barren Wife Theme

Theme of the barren wife runs through out the Old Testament. Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel – Patriarch’s wives, Samson’s mother. Emphasis on God’s purpose for the child

Heard From God

1 Samuel 2:1–11 CSB
1 Hannah prayed: My heart rejoices in the Lord; my horn is lifted up by the Lord. My mouth boasts over my enemies, because I rejoice in your salvation. 2 There is no one holy like the Lord. There is no one besides you! And there is no rock like our God. 3 Do not boast so proudly, or let arrogant words come out of your mouth, for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and actions are weighed by him. 4 The bows of the warriors are broken, but the feeble are clothed with strength. 5 Those who are full hire themselves out for food, but those who are starving hunger no more. The woman who is childless gives birth to seven, but the woman with many sons pines away. 6 The Lord brings death and gives life; he sends some down to Sheol, and he raises others up. 7 The Lord brings poverty and gives wealth; he humbles and he exalts. 8 He raises the poor from the dust and lifts the needy from the trash heap. He seats them with noblemen and gives them a throne of honor. For the foundations of the earth are the Lord’s; he has set the world on them. 9 He guards the steps of his faithful ones, but the wicked perish in darkness, for a person does not prevail by his own strength. 10 Those who oppose the Lord will be shattered; he will thunder in the heavens against them. The Lord will judge the ends of the earth. He will give power to his king; he will lift up the horn of his anointed. 11 Elkanah went home to Ramah, but the boy served the Lord in the presence of the priest Eli.
1 Samuel 2:1-11 is a song of praise. Similar to the one that Mary will give when pregnant with Jesus.

Raised By Eli

About a year later she brings Samuel back to be dedicated. She leaves him there to become a priest. So he is raised by Eli. God givers her 3 more sons and 2 daughters
Eli has two sons
They have no regard for the Lord. They are greedy, irreverent, and immoral. They are taking portions of the sacrifice that doesn’t belong to them.
1 Samuel 2:12–17 CSB
12 Eli’s sons were wicked men; they did not respect the Lord 13 or the priests’ share of the sacrifices from the people. When anyone offered a sacrifice, the priest’s servant would come with a three-pronged meat fork while the meat was boiling 14 and plunge it into the container, kettle, cauldron, or cooking pot. The priest would claim for himself whatever the meat fork brought up. This is the way they treated all the Israelites who came there to Shiloh. 15 Even before the fat was burned, the priest’s servant would come and say to the one who was sacrificing, “Give the priest some meat to roast, because he won’t accept boiled meat from you—only raw.” 16 If that person said to him, “The fat must be burned first; then you can take whatever you want for yourself,” the servant would reply, “No, I insist that you hand it over right now. If you don’t, I’ll take it by force!” 17 So the servants’ sin was very severe in the presence of the Lord, because the men treated the Lord’s offering with contempt.

The sacrifice

To take their portion after it was cooked. P&H took it before it was cooked, Even resorted to violence
1 Samuel 2:22–25 CSB
22 Now Eli was very old. He heard about everything his sons were doing to all Israel and how they were sleeping with the women who served at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 23 He said to them, “Why are you doing these things? I have heard about your evil actions from all these people. 24 No, my sons, the news I hear the Lord’s people spreading is not good. 25 If one person sins against another, God can intercede for him, but if a person sins against the Lord, who can intercede for him?” But they would not listen to their father, since the Lord intended to kill them.
Eli’s Rebuke 2:22-25
“If one sins against the Lord, who will intercede for them?”. Did not listen to their father. Because of these two Eli’s family will lose the privilege of serving at the shrine. They will die on the same day.

Call of Samuel

Chapter 3 = Call of Samuel.
Samuel was a young boy, He hears a voice calling his name. The thinks it is Eli. So he goes to the old man and asks him what he wants. I didn’t call you go back to bed.
This happens two times. Eli realizes what is happening and tells the boy to answer. “Speak lord for your servant is listening”.
God Calls Samuel to be the Leader, And the condemnation of Eli

History of the Ark

1 Samuel 4–6 CSB
1 And Samuel’s words came to all Israel. Israel went out to meet the Philistines in battle and camped at Ebenezer while the Philistines camped at Aphek. 2 The Philistines lined up in battle formation against Israel, and as the battle intensified, Israel was defeated by the Philistines, who struck down about four thousand men on the battlefield. 3 When the troops returned to the camp, the elders of Israel asked, “Why did the Lord defeat us today before the Philistines? Let’s bring the ark of the Lord’s covenant from Shiloh. Then it will go with us and save us from our enemies.” 4 So the people sent men to Shiloh to bring back the ark of the covenant of the Lord of Armies, who is enthroned between the cherubim. Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God. 5 When the ark of the covenant of the Lord entered the camp, all the Israelites raised such a loud shout that the ground shook. 6 The Philistines heard the sound of the war cry and asked, “What’s this loud shout in the Hebrews’ camp?” When the Philistines discovered that the ark of the Lord had entered the camp, 7 they panicked. “A god has entered their camp!” they said. “Woe to us! Nothing like this has happened before. 8 Woe to us! Who will rescue us from these magnificent gods? These are the gods that slaughtered the Egyptians with all kinds of plagues in the wilderness. 9 Show some courage and be men, Philistines! Otherwise, you’ll serve the Hebrews just as they served you. Now be men and fight!” 10 So the Philistines fought, and Israel was defeated, and each man fled to his tent. The slaughter was severe—thirty thousand of the Israelite foot soldiers fell. 11 The ark of God was captured, and Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, died. 12 That same day, a Benjaminite man ran from the battle and came to Shiloh. His clothes were torn, and there was dirt on his head. 13 When he arrived, there was Eli sitting on his chair beside the road waiting, because he was anxious about the ark of God. When the man entered the city to give a report, the entire city cried out. 14 Eli heard the outcry and asked, “Why this commotion?” The man quickly came and reported to Eli. 15 At that time Eli was ninety-eight years old, and his eyes didn’t move because he couldn’t see. 16 The man said to Eli, “I’m the one who came from the battle. I fled from there today.” “What happened, my son?” Eli asked. 17 The messenger answered, “Israel has fled from the Philistines, and also there was a great slaughter among the people. Your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, are both dead, and the ark of God has been captured.” 18 When he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell backward off the chair by the city gate, and since he was old and heavy, his neck broke and he died. Eli had judged Israel forty years. 19 Eli’s daughter-in-law, the wife of Phinehas, was pregnant and about to give birth. When she heard the news about the capture of God’s ark and the deaths of her father-in-law and her husband, she collapsed and gave birth because her labor pains came on her. 20 As she was dying, the women taking care of her said, “Don’t be afraid. You’ve given birth to a son!” But she did not respond or pay attention. 21 She named the boy Ichabod, saying, “The glory has departed from Israel,” referring to the capture of the ark of God and to the deaths of her father-in-law and her husband. 22 “The glory has departed from Israel,” she said, “because the ark of God has been captured.” 1 After the Philistines had captured the ark of God, they took it from Ebenezer to Ashdod, 2 brought it into the temple of Dagon and placed it next to his statue. 3 When the people of Ashdod got up early the next morning, there was Dagon, fallen with his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord. So they took Dagon and returned him to his place. 4 But when they got up early the next morning, there was Dagon, fallen with his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord. This time, Dagon’s head and both of his hands were broken off and lying on the threshold. Only Dagon’s torso remained. 5 That is why, still today, the priests of Dagon and everyone who enters the temple of Dagon in Ashdod do not step on Dagon’s threshold. 6 The Lord’s hand was heavy on the people of Ashdod. He terrified the people of Ashdod and its territory and afflicted them with tumors. 7 When the people of Ashdod saw what was happening, they said, “The ark of Israel’s God must not stay here with us, because his hand is strongly against us and our god Dagon.” 8 So they called all the Philistine rulers together and asked, “What should we do with the ark of Israel’s God?” “The ark of Israel’s God should be moved to Gath,” they replied. So they moved the ark of Israel’s God. 9 After they had moved it, the Lord’s hand was against the city of Gath, causing a great panic. He afflicted the people of the city, from the youngest to the oldest, with an outbreak of tumors. 10 The people of Gath then sent the ark of God to Ekron, but when it got there, the Ekronites cried out, “They’ve moved the ark of Israel’s God to us to kill us and our people!” 11 The Ekronites called all the Philistine rulers together. They said, “Send the ark of Israel’s God away. Let it return to its place so it won’t kill us and our people!” For the fear of death pervaded the city; God’s hand was oppressing them. 12 Those who did not die were afflicted with tumors, and the outcry of the city went up to heaven. 1 When the ark of the Lord had been in Philistine territory for seven months, 2 the Philistines summoned the priests and the diviners and pleaded, “What should we do with the ark of the Lord? Tell us how we can send it back to its place.” 3 They replied, “If you send the ark of Israel’s God away, do not send it without an offering. Send back a guilt offering to him, and you will be healed. Then the reason his hand hasn’t been removed from you will be revealed.” 4 They asked, “What guilt offering should we send back to him?” And they answered, “Five gold tumors and five gold mice corresponding to the number of Philistine rulers, since there was one plague for both you and your rulers. 5 Make images of your tumors and of your mice that are destroying the land. Give glory to Israel’s God, and perhaps he will stop oppressing you, your gods, and your land. 6 Why harden your hearts as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened theirs? When he afflicted them, didn’t they send Israel away, and Israel left? 7 “Now then, prepare one new cart and two milk cows that have never been yoked. Hitch the cows to the cart, but take their calves away and pen them up. 8 Take the ark of the Lord, place it on the cart, and put the gold objects that you’re sending him as a guilt offering in a box beside the ark. Send it off and let it go its way. 9 Then watch: If it goes up the road to its homeland toward Beth-shemesh, it is the Lord who has made this terrible trouble for us. However, if it doesn’t, we will know that it was not his hand that punished us—it was just something that happened to us by chance.” 10 The men did this: They took two milk cows, hitched them to the cart, and confined their calves in the pen. 11 Then they put the ark of the Lord on the cart, along with the box containing the gold mice and the images of their tumors. 12 The cows went straight up the road to Beth-shemesh. They stayed on that one highway, lowing as they went; they never strayed to the right or to the left. The Philistine rulers were walking behind them to the territory of Beth-shemesh. 13 The people of Beth-shemesh were harvesting wheat in the valley, and when they looked up and saw the ark, they were overjoyed to see it. 14 The cart came to the field of Joshua of Beth-shemesh and stopped there near a large rock. The people of the city chopped up the cart and offered the cows as a burnt offering to the Lord. 15 The Levites removed the ark of the Lord, along with the box containing the gold objects, and placed them on the large rock. That day the people of Beth-shemesh offered burnt offerings and made sacrifices to the Lord. 16 When the five Philistine rulers observed this, they returned to Ekron that same day. 17 As a guilt offering to the Lord, the Philistines had sent back one gold tumor for each city: Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron. 18 The number of gold mice also corresponded to the number of Philistine cities of the five rulers, the fortified cities and the outlying villages. The large rock on which the ark of the Lord was placed is still in the field of Joshua of Beth-shemesh today. 19 God struck down the people of Beth-shemesh because they looked inside the ark of the Lord. He struck down seventy persons. The people mourned because the Lord struck them with a great slaughter. 20 The people of Beth-shemesh asked, “Who is able to stand in the presence of the Lord this holy God? To whom should the ark go from here?” 21 They sent messengers to the residents of Kiriath-jearim, saying, “The Philistines have returned the ark of the Lord. Come down and get it.”
History of the Ark
The Ark symbol of God’s presence. Normally its presence brought good to Israel and bad to its enemies, But it did not guarantee military victory


A growing nations attacks the Israelites. They plan to cut the nation in half by driving through the mountains to the Jordan. They have Iron weapons that are far superior to anything the Israelites had. The first day of battle ended with heavy losses for Israel.
So they call on the Ark. The ark is carried by Hophni and Phineas, Unholy men.
Hophni and Phineas are killed in battle and the Ark is captured. When a messenger took the word to Eli. He dies of shock. And Phineas’ wife died giving birth to a son, named Ichabod, “The Glory of God has Departed”
Ark is taken to Ashdod and placed in the temple of Dagon


Dagon, meaning little fish, became a major Philistine idol after they adopted it from other non-Israelite people in The Land of Canaan, who themselves got it from the Babylonians.
The Philistine Dagon was usually portrayed as half man and half fish, as was the earlier Babylonian version, examples of which have been found showing a creature with the lower half of the body as a fish and the upper half as a classic ancient Babylonian.
A number of famous incidents of Bible History involved Dagon idolatry, including the death of Samson, the attempted looting of the Ark of the Covenant and the beheading of King Saul.
It was taken there as a symbol of Dagon’s Superiority over the God of the Israelites.
In the morning the statue of Dagon was laying on its face before the Ark. Next day fallen, hands and face broken laying on the threshold.
Next a Plague struck Ashdod. The people began to have skin tumors.

‘Opalim - Rise

Bubonic plague
Membra virile - E.D. Erectile dysfunction
Ashdod Video
Back to the map
The people of Ashdod decided that the people of Gath had ad right to keep the Ark. The people of Gath began to have soars. So it was sent to Ekron. The people of Ekron tells them to send it to Israel. They hitch it to and untrained Ox. When the cart was found. They broke up the cart and the ox were sacrificed. The ark is taken to a private home in Kiriath-Jearim and will remain there until David brings it to Jerusalem.

The Work of Samuel

1 Samuel 7-12 Deal with the work of Samuel

Four roles of Samuel

Intercedes and offers sacrifices
Experienced the last of the great battles of the judges
Calls people back to God
He was also a judge in a modern sense of the term
One who administers justice
Fortune teller
Speaks the words of God
Kingmaker/ King breaker
Election and anointing of Saul
Later would anoint David
King breaker
In relation to Saul

Election of Saul

Two traditions on how Saul was appointed.
1 Samuel 8 CSB
1 When Samuel grew old, he appointed his sons as judges over Israel. 2 His firstborn son’s name was Joel and his second was Abijah. They were judges in Beer-sheba. 3 However, his sons did not walk in his ways—they turned toward dishonest profit, took bribes, and perverted justice. 4 So all the elders of Israel gathered together and went to Samuel at Ramah. 5 They said to him, “Look, you are old, and your sons do not walk in your ways. Therefore, appoint a king to judge us the same as all the other nations have.” 6 When they said, “Give us a king to judge us,” Samuel considered their demand wrong, so he prayed to the Lord. 7 But the Lord told him, “Listen to the people and everything they say to you. They have not rejected you; they have rejected me as their king. 8 They are doing the same thing to you that they have done to me, since the day I brought them out of Egypt until this day, abandoning me and worshiping other gods. 9 Listen to them, but solemnly warn them and tell them about the customary rights of the king who will reign over them.” 10 Samuel told all the Lord’s words to the people who were asking him for a king. 11 He said, “These are the rights of the king who will reign over you: He will take your sons and put them to his use in his chariots, on his horses, or running in front of his chariots. 12 He can appoint them for his use as commanders of thousands or commanders of fifties, to plow his ground and reap his harvest, or to make his weapons of war and the equipment for his chariots. 13 He can take your daughters to become perfumers, cooks, and bakers. 14 He can take your best fields, vineyards, and olive orchards and give them to his servants. 15 He can take a tenth of your grain and your vineyards and give them to his officials and servants. 16 He can take your male servants, your female servants, your best cattle, and your donkeys and use them for his work. 17 He can take a tenth of your flocks, and you yourselves can become his servants. 18 When that day comes, you will cry out because of the king you’ve chosen for yourselves, but the Lord won’t answer you on that day.” 19 The people refused to listen to Samuel. “No!” they said. “We must have a king over us. 20 Then we’ll be like all the other nations: our king will judge us, go out before us, and fight our battles.” 21 Samuel listened to all the people’s words and then repeated them to the Lord. 22 “Listen to them,” the Lord told Samuel. “Appoint a king for them.” Then Samuel told the men of Israel, “Each of you, go back to your city.”
Israel wants a king. Elders request a king. They want to be like every one else. Samuel has been the last Judge and he is the ruler. They are looking at Samuel’s sons, Joel and Abijah. They take dishonest gain, they took bribes, they Perverted justice. Samuel you are getting old.
And the LORD told him: "Listen to all that the people are saying to you; it is not you they have rejected, but they have rejected me as their king.
God is rejected as ruler. No longer to be a theocracy, But a monarch.
God gives in and gives them a King.

Samuel warning about a king

Take from you:
Your children
Your crops
Your livestock
People – we still want a king
No other ANE monarchy is listed as an evil thing. This is to say it has already failed. It is marked as a failure before it even begins. 
1 Samuel 9:2 CSB
2 He had a son named Saul, an impressive young man. There was no one more impressive among the Israelites than he. He stood a head taller than anyone else.
Saul was handsome. He stood head and shoulders above everyone else. This is exactly what the People are looking for.
Saul was sent out by his father to find some donkeys that had strayed. He searches for some time without success. So he goes and sees the famous seer and prophet Samuel. The day before, Samuel had a vision from God that Saul would come and should be anointed. Samuel is immediately convinced that he is God’s pick for the new King. Samuel tells Saul that the donkeys are already at home.
Then he invites him to a banquet. And gives him the seat of honor and the largest portion.
The next day when Saul prepares to leave Samuel takes olive oil an pours it on Saul’s head. And tells him he is about to be the new king.
a position that Saul didn’t want. When Samuel was called to the tribal league at Mizpah to approve Samuel’s Selection of Saul, He was found hiding among the baggage.


Samuel’s act of anointing Saul marked the king as God’s man.
He was the mashiach - “anointed one”. When mashiach was put into Greek we get the term Messiah. Saul is seen as a Messiah. Jesus will The Messiah


Saul Becomes a Military hero

1 Samuel 11 CSB
1 Nahash the Ammonite came up and laid siege to Jabesh-gilead. All the men of Jabesh said to him, “Make a treaty with us, and we will serve you.” 2 Nahash the Ammonite replied, “I’ll make one with you on this condition: that I gouge out everyone’s right eye and humiliate all Israel.” 3 “Don’t do anything to us for seven days,” the elders of Jabesh said to him, “and let us send messengers throughout the territory of Israel. If no one saves us, we will surrender to you.” 4 When the messengers came to Gibeah, Saul’s hometown, and told the terms to the people, all wept aloud. 5 Just then Saul was coming in from the field behind his oxen. “What’s the matter with the people? Why are they weeping?” Saul inquired, and they repeated to him the words of the men from Jabesh. 6 When Saul heard these words, the Spirit of God suddenly came powerfully on him, and his anger burned furiously. 7 He took a team of oxen, cut them in pieces, and sent them throughout the territory of Israel by messengers who said, “This is what will be done to the ox of anyone who doesn’t march behind Saul and Samuel.” As a result, the terror of the Lord fell on the people, and they went out united. 8 Saul counted them at Bezek. There were three hundred thousand Israelites and thirty thousand men from Judah. 9 He told the messengers who had come, “Tell this to the men of Jabesh-gilead: ‘Deliverance will be yours tomorrow by the time the sun is hot.’ ” So the messengers told the men of Jabesh, and they rejoiced. 10 Then the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, “Tomorrow we will come out, and you can do whatever you want to us.” 11 The next day Saul organized the troops into three divisions. During the morning watch, they invaded the Ammonite camp and slaughtered them until the heat of the day. There were survivors, but they were so scattered that no two of them were left together. 12 Afterward, the people said to Samuel, “Who said that Saul should not reign over us? Give us those men so we can kill them!” 13 But Saul ordered, “No one will be executed this day, for today the Lord has provided deliverance in Israel.” 14 Then Samuel said to the people, “Come, let’s go to Gilgal, so we can renew the kingship there.” 15 So all the people went to Gilgal, and there in the Lord’s presence they made Saul king. There they sacrificed fellowship offerings in the Lord’s presence, and Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly.
Saul becomes a Military hero.
Saul made no move to exert his authority as king. He instead is leading a life of an Israelite farmer serving more as a Judge than a king.


Town 25 miles south of the Sea of Galilee came under attack by the Ammonites. Lead by the king Nahash - “Snake”. The town being in trouble asked for terms of peace. The Ammonites agree. Only if they could gouge out the right eyes of all the men of the town. They give them 7 days to decide. During this time a message is sent to Saul for help. Upon hearing this “the Spirit of God came upon Saul in Power” (11:6). He takes a team of oxen which he had been plowing, Kills them. Cuts them into twelve parts and sends one piece to the leaders of each of the tribes. This is a signal to mobilize for war.
The men responded quickly. He divides his force into three groups, Attacking the Ammonites early in the morning and defeated them. This won the support for Saul he needed and he was confirmed as king.

Saul’s Kingship

Saul man of the people
Kept simple life at Gibeah
Offered protection from Israel from enemies (Philistines), Military leader
Samuel’s influence: Saul listens to Samuel for most of his kingship. He also becomes reliant on Samuel.
Saul is a reluctant king. Saul lacks in self-confidence. Self-confidences leads to eventual downfall.

Samuel’s Final Speech

1 Samuel 12 CSB
1 Then Samuel said to all Israel, “I have carefully listened to everything you said to me and placed a king over you. 2 Now you can see that the king is leading you. As for me, I’m old and gray, and my sons are here with you. I have led you from my youth until now. 3 Here I am. Bring charges against me before the Lord and his anointed: Whose ox or donkey have I taken? Who have I wronged or mistreated? Who gave me a bribe to overlook something? I will return it to you.” 4 “You haven’t wronged us, you haven’t mistreated us, and you haven’t taken anything from anyone,” they responded. 5 He said to them, “The Lord is a witness against you, and his anointed is a witness today that you haven’t found anything in my hand.” “He is a witness,” they said. 6 Then Samuel said to the people, “The Lord, who appointed Moses and Aaron and who brought your ancestors up from the land of Egypt, is a witness. 7 Now present yourselves, so I may confront you before the Lord about all the righteous acts he has done for you and your ancestors. 8 “When Jacob went to Egypt, your ancestors cried out to the Lord, and he sent them Moses and Aaron, who led your ancestors out of Egypt and settled them in this place. 9 But they forgot the Lord their God, so he handed them over to Sisera commander of the army of Hazor, to the Philistines, and to the king of Moab. These enemies fought against them. 10 Then they cried out to the Lord and said, ‘We have sinned, for we abandoned the Lord and worshiped the Baals and the Ashtoreths. Now rescue us from the power of our enemies, and we will serve you.’ 11 So the Lord sent Jerubbaal, Barak, Jephthah, and Samuel. He rescued you from the power of the enemies around you, and you lived securely. 12 But when you saw that Nahash king of the Ammonites was coming against you, you said to me, ‘No, we must have a king reign over us’—even though the Lord your God is your king. 13 “Now here is the king you’ve chosen, the one you requested. Look, this is the king the Lord has placed over you. 14 If you fear the Lord, worship and obey him, and if you don’t rebel against the Lord’s command, then both you and the king who reigns over you will follow the Lord your God. 15 However, if you disobey the Lord and rebel against his command, the Lord’s hand will be against you as it was against your ancestors. 16 “Now, therefore, present yourselves and see this great thing that the Lord will do before your eyes. 17 Isn’t the wheat harvest today? I will call on the Lord, and he will send thunder and rain so that you will recognize what an immense evil you committed in the Lord’s sight by requesting a king for yourselves.” 18 Samuel called on the Lord, and on that day the Lord sent thunder and rain. As a result, all the people greatly feared the Lord and Samuel. 19 They pleaded with Samuel, “Pray to the Lord your God for your servants so we won’t die! For we have added to all our sins the evil of requesting a king for ourselves.” 20 Samuel replied, “Don’t be afraid. Even though you have committed all this evil, don’t turn away from following the Lord. Instead, worship the Lord with all your heart. 21 Don’t turn away to follow worthless things that can’t profit or rescue you; they are worthless. 22 The Lord will not abandon his people, because of his great name and because he has determined to make you his own people. 23 “As for me, I vow that I will not sin against the Lord by ceasing to pray for you. I will teach you the good and right way. 24 Above all, fear the Lord and worship him faithfully with all your heart; consider the great things he has done for you. 25 However, if you continue to do what is evil, both you and your king will be swept away.”
Samuel gives his final speech. In it he recounts God’s victory. Successful king is one who remains in God’s will. Follow God and be blessed, Reject God and be cursed.
But Samuel Did not retire.
Samuel is seen as a great prophet, priest, and Judge but I never really liked him here. By not retiring isn’t he adding to Saul’s failure possibilities. And in a way he continues to lead through Saul. Sounds like a no win situation.

Length of Reign

1 Samuel 13:1 CSB
1 Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty-two years over Israel.
1 Samuel 13:1 KJV 1900
1 Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel,
1 Samuel 13:1 ESV
1 Saul lived for one year and then became king, and when he had reigned for two years over Israel,
1 Samuel 13:1 NIV
1 Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel forty- two years.
1 Samuel 13:1 NASB95
1 Saul was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty two years over Israel.
The Hebrew word is incomplete.
2 years
12 years - Tullock
22 years – John Bright, a history of Israel
42 years – NIV – 40 being a complete time
The Details of Saul’s age and the length of his reign have been lost, or deliberately omitted, from the Hebrew Text.
Acts 13:21 CSB
21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.
Acts indicates that he ruled for 40 years.
(143) And after this manner have the kings of David’s race ended their lives, being in number twenty-one, until, the last king, who all together reigned five hundred and fourteen years, and six months, and ten days: of whom Saul, who was their first king, retained the government twenty years, though he was not of the same tribe with the rest.
Josephus Antiquities 10:143
20 years but then later
The Works of Josephus: New Updated Edition Chapter 14: How Saul, upon God’s Not Answering Him concerning the Fight with the Philistines, Desired a Necromantic Woman to Raise up the Soul of Samuel to Him; and How He Died, with His Sons, upon the Overthrow of the Hebrews in Battle

(378) To this his sad end did Saul come, according to the prophecy of Samuel, because he disobeyed the commands of God about the Amalekites, and on the account of his destroying the family of Ahimelech, the high priest, with Ahimelech himself, and the city of the high priests. Now Saul, when he had reigned eighteen years while Samuel was alive, and after his death two [and twenty], ended his life in this manner.

But elsewhere he seems to suggest 40 when we do the math.
No matter how long it is His entire reign is spent in warfare, and his success is based on his son’s success, Jonathan.

Saul’s Mistake at Gilgal

1 Samuel 13:5–15 CSB
5 The Philistines also gathered to fight against Israel: three thousand chariots, six thousand horsemen, and troops as numerous as the sand on the seashore. They went up and camped at Michmash, east of Beth-aven. 6 The men of Israel saw that they were in trouble because the troops were in a difficult situation. They hid in caves, in thickets, among rocks, and in holes and cisterns. 7 Some Hebrews even crossed the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. Saul, however, was still at Gilgal, and all his troops were gripped with fear. 8 He waited seven days for the appointed time that Samuel had set, but Samuel didn’t come to Gilgal, and the troops were deserting him. 9 So Saul said, “Bring me the burnt offering and the fellowship offerings.” Then he offered the burnt offering. 10 Just as he finished offering the burnt offering, Samuel arrived. So Saul went out to greet him, 11 and Samuel asked, “What have you done?” Saul answered, “When I saw that the troops were deserting me and you didn’t come within the appointed days and the Philistines were gathering at Michmash, 12 I thought, ‘The Philistines will now descend on me at Gilgal, and I haven’t sought the Lord’s favor.’ So I forced myself to offer the burnt offering.” 13 Samuel said to Saul, “You have been foolish. You have not kept the command the Lord your God gave you. It was at this time that the Lord would have permanently established your reign over Israel, 14 but now your reign will not endure. The Lord has found a man after his own heart, and the Lord has appointed him as ruler over his people, because you have not done what the Lord commanded.” 15 Then Samuel went from Gilgal to Gibeah in Benjamin. Saul registered the troops who were with him, about six hundred men.
Saul gathers his troops to attack the Philistines from Gilgal. Saul waits 7 days for Samuel to arrive He need to offer a sacrifice before the battle, Samuel does not come. The troops start to scatter so Saul decides to offer the burn offering himself instead of waiting for the priest Samuel. Samuel arrives just as he finishes. Samuel tells him that he had disobeyed God and as a result his kingdom would not continue. This is supposed to be seen as funny or ironic. Sometimes I think we try to make the Bible into a work of only seriousness.
1 Samuel 13:15–14:15 CSB
15 Then Samuel went from Gilgal to Gibeah in Benjamin. Saul registered the troops who were with him, about six hundred men. 16 Saul, his son Jonathan, and the troops who were with them were staying in Geba of Benjamin, and the Philistines were camped at Michmash. 17 Raiding parties went out from the Philistine camp in three divisions. One division headed toward the Ophrah road leading to the land of Shual. 18 The next division headed toward the Beth-horon road, and the last division headed down the border road that looks out over the Zeboim Valley toward the wilderness. 19 No blacksmith could be found in all the land of Israel because the Philistines had said, “Otherwise, the Hebrews will make swords or spears.” 20 So all the Israelites went to the Philistines to sharpen their plows, mattocks, axes, and sickles. 21 The price was two-thirds of a shekel for plows and mattocks, and one-third of a shekel for pitchforks and axes, and for putting a point on a cattle prod. 22 So on the day of battle not a sword or spear could be found in the hand of any of the troops who were with Saul and Jonathan; only Saul and his son Jonathan had weapons. 23 Now a Philistine garrison took control of the pass at Michmash. 1 That same day Saul’s son Jonathan said to the attendant who carried his weapons, “Come on, let’s cross over to the Philistine garrison on the other side.” However, he did not tell his father. 2 Saul was staying under the pomegranate tree in Migron on the outskirts of Gibeah. The troops with him numbered about six hundred. 3 Ahijah, who was wearing an ephod, was also there. He was the son of Ahitub, the brother of Ichabod son of Phinehas, son of Eli the Lord’s priest at Shiloh. But the troops did not know that Jonathan had left. 4 There were sharp columns of rock on both sides of the pass that Jonathan intended to cross to reach the Philistine garrison. One was named Bozez and the other Seneh; 5 one stood to the north in front of Michmash and the other to the south in front of Geba. 6 Jonathan said to the attendant who carried his weapons, “Come on, let’s cross over to the garrison of these uncircumcised men. Perhaps the Lord will help us. Nothing can keep the Lord from saving, whether by many or by few.” 7 His armor-bearer responded, “Do what is in your heart. Go ahead! I’m completely with you.” 8 “All right,” Jonathan replied, “we’ll cross over to the men and then let them see us. 9 If they say, ‘Wait until we reach you,’ then we will stay where we are and not go up to them. 10 But if they say, ‘Come on up,’ then we’ll go up, because the Lord has handed them over to us—that will be our sign.” 11 They let themselves be seen by the Philistine garrison, and the Philistines said, “Look, the Hebrews are coming out of the holes where they’ve been hiding!” 12 The men of the garrison called to Jonathan and his armor-bearer. “Come on up, and we’ll teach you a lesson!” they said. “Follow me,” Jonathan told his armor-bearer, “for the Lord has handed them over to Israel.” 13 Jonathan climbed up using his hands and feet, with his armor-bearer behind him. Jonathan cut them down, and his armor-bearer followed and finished them off. 14 In that first assault Jonathan and his armor-bearer struck down about twenty men in a half-acre field. 15 Terror spread through the Philistine camp and the open fields to all the troops. Even the garrison and the raiding parties were terrified. The earth shook, and terror spread from God.
Saul had only six hundred soldiers at Gilgal to face the Philistine force encamped at Michmash about ten miles to the west
1 Samuel 13:22 CSB
22 So on the day of battle not a sword or spear could be found in the hand of any of the troops who were with Saul and Jonathan; only Saul and his son Jonathan had weapons.
13:22 says that only Saul and Jonathan even had iron swords. People were relying on the Philistines for weapons. Pick them up as the Philistines drop them. Jonathan and his armor bearer crept up a narrow pass overlooking the Philistine camp. Then stood up, and called to the Philistines to get their attention. The two had already agreed that if the Philistines rose up to meet them then it was a sign that the Lord would grant them victory.
The Philistines do rise up but in the narrow place only a few could fight at a time. Jonathan would knock them down, the armor barer would finish them off. This action demoralizes the troops and an earth quake comes and causes them to run in fear.
1 Samuel 14:16–46 CSB
16 When Saul’s watchmen in Gibeah of Benjamin looked, they saw the panicking troops scattering in every direction. 17 So Saul said to the troops with him, “Call the roll and determine who has left us.” They called the roll and saw that Jonathan and his armor-bearer were gone. 18 Saul told Ahijah, “Bring the ark of God,” for it was with the Israelites at that time. 19 While Saul spoke to the priest, the panic in the Philistine camp increased in intensity. So Saul said to the priest, “Stop what you’re doing.” 20 Saul and all the troops with him assembled and marched to the battle, and there the Philistines were, fighting against each other in great confusion! 21 There were Hebrews from the area who had gone earlier into the camp to join the Philistines, but even they joined the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan. 22 When all the Israelite men who had been hiding in the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines were fleeing, they also joined Saul and Jonathan in the battle. 23 So the Lord saved Israel that day. The battle extended beyond Beth-aven, 24 and the men of Israel were worn out that day, for Saul had placed the troops under an oath: “The man who eats food before evening, before I have taken vengeance on my enemies is cursed.” So none of the troops tasted any food. 25 Everyone went into the forest, and there was honey on the ground. 26 When the troops entered the forest, they saw the flow of honey, but none of them ate any of it because they feared the oath. 27 However, Jonathan had not heard his father make the troops swear the oath. He reached out with the end of the staff he was carrying and dipped it into the honeycomb. When he ate the honey, he had renewed energy. 28 Then one of the troops said, “Your father made the troops solemnly swear, ‘The man who eats food today is cursed,’ and the troops are exhausted.” 29 Jonathan replied, “My father has brought trouble to the land. Just look at how I have renewed energy because I tasted a little of this honey. 30 How much better if the troops had eaten freely today from the plunder they took from their enemies! Then the slaughter of the Philistines would have been much greater.” 31 The Israelites struck down the Philistines that day from Michmash all the way to Aijalon. Since the Israelites were completely exhausted, 32 they rushed to the plunder, took sheep, goats, cattle, and calves, slaughtered them on the ground, and ate meat with the blood still in it. 33 Some reported to Saul, “Look, the troops are sinning against the Lord by eating meat with the blood still in it.” Saul said, “You have been unfaithful. Roll a large stone over here at once.” 34 He then said, “Go among the troops and say to them, ‘Let each man bring me his ox or his sheep. Do the slaughtering here and then you can eat. Don’t sin against the Lord by eating meat with the blood in it.’ ” So every one of the troops brought his ox that night and slaughtered it there. 35 Then Saul built an altar to the Lord; it was the first time he had built an altar to the Lord. 36 Saul said, “Let’s go down after the Philistines tonight and plunder them until morning. Don’t let even one remain!” “Do whatever you want,” the troops replied. But the priest said, “Let’s approach God here.” 37 So Saul inquired of God, “Should I go after the Philistines? Will you hand them over to Israel?” But God did not answer him that day. 38 Saul said, “All you leaders of the troops, come here. Let’s investigate how this sin has occurred today. 39 As surely as the Lord lives who saves Israel, even if it is because of my son Jonathan, he must die!” Not one of the troops answered him. 40 So he said to all Israel, “You will be on one side, and I and my son Jonathan will be on the other side.” And the troops replied, “Do whatever you want.” 41 So Saul said to the Lord, “God of Israel, why have you not answered your servant today? If the unrighteousness is in me or in my son Jonathan, Lord God of Israel, give Urim; but if the fault is in your people Israel, give Thummim.” Jonathan and Saul were selected, and the troops were cleared of the charge. 42 Then Saul said, “Cast the lot between me and my son Jonathan,” and Jonathan was selected. 43 Saul commanded him, “Tell me what you did.” Jonathan told him, “I tasted a little honey with the end of the staff I was carrying. I am ready to die!” 44 Saul declared to him, “May God punish me and do so severely if you do not die, Jonathan!” 45 But the people said to Saul, “Must Jonathan die? He accomplished such a great deliverance for Israel? No, as the Lord lives, not a hair of his head will fall to the ground, for he worked with God’s help today.” So the people redeemed Jonathan, and he did not die. 46 Then Saul gave up the pursuit of the Philistines, and the Philistines returned to their own territory.
Word got back to the camp that Jonathan was causing the Philistines trouble. Saul started to consult the priest, But the men were running to join the battle so he went on without the religious ceremony, But he did order than no one should eat anything until the philistines defeat. Anyone caught eating would be put to death. Jonathan doesn’t know of this so he eats some honey. Saul desires to kill him but the people intercede for him.
Jonathan is becoming more popular than Saul

Saul fights the Amalekites

1 Samuel 15 CSB
1 Samuel told Saul, “The Lord sent me to anoint you as king over his people Israel. Now, listen to the words of the Lord. 2 This is what the Lord of Armies says: ‘I witnessed what the Amalekites did to the Israelites when they opposed them along the way as they were coming out of Egypt. 3 Now go and attack the Amalekites and completely destroy everything they have. Do not spare them. Kill men and women, infants and nursing babies, oxen and sheep, camels and donkeys.’ ” 4 Then Saul summoned the troops and counted them at Telaim: two hundred thousand foot soldiers and ten thousand men from Judah. 5 Saul came to the city of Amalek and set up an ambush in the wadi. 6 He warned the Kenites, “Since you showed kindness to all the Israelites when they came out of Egypt, go on and leave! Get away from the Amalekites, or I’ll sweep you away with them.” So the Kenites withdrew from the Amalekites. 7 Then Saul struck down the Amalekites from Havilah all the way to Shur, which is next to Egypt. 8 He captured King Agag of Amalek alive, but he completely destroyed all the rest of the people with the sword. 9 Saul and the troops spared Agag, and the best of the sheep, goats, cattle, and choice animals, as well as the young rams and the best of everything else. They were not willing to destroy them, but they did destroy all the worthless and unwanted things. 10 Then the word of the Lord came to Samuel, 11 “I regret that I made Saul king, for he has turned away from following me and has not carried out my instructions.” So Samuel became angry and cried out to the Lord all night. 12 Early in the morning Samuel got up to confront Saul, but it was reported to Samuel, “Saul went to Carmel where he set up a monument for himself. Then he turned around and went down to Gilgal.” 13 When Samuel came to him, Saul said, “May the Lord bless you. I have carried out the Lord’s instructions.” 14 Samuel replied, “Then what is this sound of sheep, goats, and cattle I hear?” 15 Saul answered, “The troops brought them from the Amalekites and spared the best sheep, goats, and cattle in order to offer a sacrifice to the Lord your God, but the rest we destroyed.” 16 “Stop!” exclaimed Samuel. “Let me tell you what the Lord said to me last night.” “Tell me,” he replied. 17 Samuel continued, “Although you once considered yourself unimportant, haven’t you become the leader of the tribes of Israel? The Lord anointed you king over Israel 18 and then sent you on a mission and said, ‘Go and completely destroy the sinful Amalekites. Fight against them until you have annihilated them.’ 19 So why didn’t you obey the Lord? Why did you rush on the plunder and do what was evil in the Lord’s sight?” 20 “But I did obey the Lord!” Saul answered. “I went on the mission the Lord gave me: I brought back King Agag of Amalek, and I completely destroyed the Amalekites. 21 The troops took sheep, goats, and cattle from the plunder—the best of what was set apart for destruction—to sacrifice to the Lord your God at Gilgal.” 22 Then Samuel said: Does the Lord take pleasure in burnt offerings and sacrifices as much as in obeying the Lord? Look: to obey is better than sacrifice, to pay attention is better than the fat of rams. 23 For rebellion is like the sin of divination, and defiance is like wickedness and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the Lord, he has rejected you as king. 24 Saul answered Samuel, “I have sinned. I have transgressed the Lord’s command and your words. Because I was afraid of the people, I obeyed them. 25 Now therefore, please forgive my sin and return with me so I can worship the Lord.” 26 Samuel replied to Saul, “I will not return with you. Because you rejected the word of the Lord, the Lord has rejected you from being king over Israel.” 27 When Samuel turned to go, Saul grabbed the corner of his robe, and it tore. 28 Samuel said to him, “The Lord has torn the kingship of Israel away from you today and has given it to your neighbor who is better than you. 29 Furthermore, the Eternal One of Israel does not lie or change his mind, for he is not man who changes his mind.” 30 Saul said, “I have sinned. Please honor me now before the elders of my people and before Israel. Come back with me so I can bow in worship to the Lord your God.” 31 Then Samuel went back, following Saul, and Saul bowed down to the Lord. 32 Samuel said, “Bring me King Agag of Amalek.” Agag came to him trembling, for he thought, “Certainly the bitterness of death has come.” 33 Samuel declared: As your sword has made women childless, so your mother will be childless among women. Then he hacked Agag to pieces before the Lord at Gilgal. 34 Samuel went to Ramah, and Saul went up to his home in Gibeah of Saul. 35 Even to the day of his death, Samuel never saw Saul again. Samuel mourned for Saul, and the Lord regretted he had made Saul king over Israel.
Samuel brings an oracle from the Lord telling Saul to wage a holy war against the Amalekites. He is to utterly destroy them, killing both man and woman, child and infant, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.
Herem (cherem) - holy war
When the battle occurred Saul did not keep all of the holy war provisions. He didn’t kill Agag, the Amalekite king, Nor did he destroy their herds, And he took spoils of war. Before we make Saul out to be a hero for not killing everyone, notice that he doesn’t save women, children, dogs named fluffy, he only saved what will increase his own power.
When Samuel found out he rebuke Saul And then removed his support for Saul not speaking to him again and Samuel will kills Agag


1 Samuel 16:1–13 CSB
1 The Lord said to Samuel, “How long are you going to mourn for Saul, since I have rejected him as king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil and go. I am sending you to Jesse of Bethlehem because I have selected for myself a king from his sons.” 2 Samuel asked, “How can I go? Saul will hear about it and kill me!” The Lord answered, “Take a young cow with you and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ 3 Then invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will let you know what you are to do. You are to anoint for me the one I indicate to you.” 4 Samuel did what the Lord directed and went to Bethlehem. When the elders of the town met him, they trembled and asked, “Do you come in peace?” 5 “In peace,” he replied. “I’ve come to sacrifice to the Lord. Consecrate yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice.” Then he consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice. 6 When they arrived, Samuel saw Eliab and said, “Certainly the Lord’s anointed one is here before him.” 7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look at his appearance or his stature because I have rejected him. Humans do not see what the Lord sees, for humans see what is visible, but the Lord sees the heart.” 8 Jesse called Abinadab and presented him to Samuel. “The Lord hasn’t chosen this one either,” Samuel said. 9 Then Jesse presented Shammah, but Samuel said, “The Lord hasn’t chosen this one either.” 10 After Jesse presented seven of his sons to him, Samuel told Jesse, “The Lord hasn’t chosen any of these.” 11 Samuel asked him, “Are these all the sons you have?” “There is still the youngest,” he answered, “but right now he’s tending the sheep.” Samuel told Jesse, “Send for him. We won’t sit down to eat until he gets here.” 12 So Jesse sent for him. He had beautiful eyes and a healthy, handsome appearance. Then the Lord said, “Anoint him, for he is the one.” 13 So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the presence of his brothers, and the Spirit of the Lord came powerfully on David from that day forward. Then Samuel set out and went to Ramah.
Introduces the next king of Israel David.

Anointing of David

Samuel is told to go to Bethlehem in Judah, To the family of Jesse, a sheepherder. Samuel calls for Jesse to parade all his sons before him so he could select the one the Lord had chosen.
Jesse brings several before him but Samuel does not believe any of them are right. The youngest who was tending the sheep was missing. When he was brought before Samuel he was anointed. Reminds me of the Cinderella story.
Emphasis God’s Choice of David

Saul Tormented by evil spirits

1 Samuel 16:14–23 CSB
14 Now the Spirit of the Lord had left Saul, and an evil spirit sent from the Lord began to torment him, 15 so Saul’s servants said to him, “You see that an evil spirit from God is tormenting you. 16 Let our lord command your servants here in your presence to look for someone who knows how to play the lyre. Whenever the evil spirit from God comes on you, that person can play the lyre, and you will feel better.” 17 Then Saul commanded his servants, “Find me someone who plays well and bring him to me.” 18 One of the young men answered, “I have seen a son of Jesse of Bethlehem who knows how to play the lyre. He is also a valiant man, a warrior, eloquent, handsome, and the Lord is with him.” 19 Then Saul dispatched messengers to Jesse and said, “Send me your son David, who is with the sheep.” 20 So Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread, a wineskin, and one young goat and sent them by his son David to Saul. 21 When David came to Saul and entered his service, Saul loved him very much, and David became his armor-bearer. 22 Then Saul sent word to Jesse: “Let David remain in my service, for he has found favor with me.” 23 Whenever the spirit from God came on Saul, David would pick up his lyre and play, and Saul would then be relieved, feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him.
Saul goes into a deep depression – Evil-spirit tormented Saul his servant tough that music might help him. David is brought into play for him, which introduces David as a musician. Many Psalms are accredited to David.

David the Military Hero

1 Samuel 17 CSB
1 The Philistines gathered their forces for war at Socoh in Judah and camped between Socoh and Azekah in Ephes-dammim. 2 Saul and the men of Israel gathered and camped in the Valley of Elah; then they lined up in battle formation to face the Philistines. 3 The Philistines were standing on one hill, and the Israelites were standing on another hill with a ravine between them. 4 Then a champion named Goliath, from Gath, came out from the Philistine camp. He was nine feet, nine inches tall 5 and wore a bronze helmet and bronze scale armor that weighed one hundred twenty-five pounds. 6 There was bronze armor on his shins, and a bronze javelin was slung between his shoulders. 7 His spear shaft was like a weaver’s beam, and the iron point of his spear weighed fifteen pounds. In addition, a shield-bearer was walking in front of him. 8 He stood and shouted to the Israelite battle formations, “Why do you come out to line up in battle formation?” He asked them, “Am I not a Philistine and are you not servants of Saul? Choose one of your men and have him come down against me. 9 If he wins in a fight against me and kills me, we will be your servants. But if I win against him and kill him, then you will be our servants and serve us.” 10 Then the Philistine said, “I defy the ranks of Israel today. Send me a man so we can fight each other!” 11 When Saul and all Israel heard these words from the Philistine, they lost their courage and were terrified. 12 Now David was the son of the Ephrathite from Bethlehem of Judah named Jesse. Jesse had eight sons and during Saul’s reign was already an old man. 13 Jesse’s three oldest sons had followed Saul to the war, and their names were Eliab, the firstborn, Abinadab, the next, and Shammah, the third, 14 and David was the youngest. The three oldest had followed Saul, 15 but David kept going back and forth from Saul to tend his father’s flock in Bethlehem. 16 Every morning and evening for forty days the Philistine came forward and took his stand. 17 One day Jesse had told his son David, “Take this half-bushel of roasted grain along with these ten loaves of bread for your brothers and hurry to their camp. 18 Also take these ten portions of cheese to the field commander. Check on the well-being of your brothers and bring a confirmation from them. 19 They are with Saul and all the men of Israel in the Valley of Elah fighting with the Philistines.” 20 So David got up early in the morning, left the flock with someone to keep it, loaded up, and set out as Jesse had charged him. He arrived at the perimeter of the camp as the army was marching out to its battle formation shouting their battle cry. 21 Israel and the Philistines lined up in battle formation facing each other. 22 David left his supplies in the care of the quartermaster and ran to the battle line. When he arrived, he asked his brothers how they were. 23 While he was speaking with them, suddenly the champion named Goliath, the Philistine from Gath, came forward from the Philistine battle line and shouted his usual words, which David heard. 24 When all the Israelite men saw Goliath, they retreated from him terrified. 25 Previously, an Israelite man had declared, “Do you see this man who keeps coming out? He comes to defy Israel. The king will make the man who kills him very rich and will give him his daughter. The king will also make the family of that man’s father exempt from paying taxes in Israel.” 26 David spoke to the men who were standing with him: “What will be done for the man who kills that Philistine and removes this disgrace from Israel? Just who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God?” 27 The troops told him about the offer, concluding, “That is what will be done for the man who kills him.” 28 David’s oldest brother Eliab listened as he spoke to the men, and he became angry with him. “Why did you come down here?” he asked. “Who did you leave those few sheep with in the wilderness? I know your arrogance and your evil heart—you came down to see the battle!” 29 “What have I done now?” protested David. “It was just a question.” 30 Then he turned from those beside him to others in front of him and asked about the offer. The people gave him the same answer as before. 31 What David said was overheard and reported to Saul, so he had David brought to him. 32 David said to Saul, “Don’t let anyone be discouraged by him; your servant will go and fight this Philistine!” 33 But Saul replied, “You can’t go fight this Philistine. You’re just a youth, and he’s been a warrior since he was young.” 34 David answered Saul, “Your servant has been tending his father’s sheep. Whenever a lion or a bear came and carried off a lamb from the flock, 35 I went after it, struck it down, and rescued the lamb from its mouth. If it reared up against me, I would grab it by its fur, strike it down, and kill it. 36 Your servant has killed lions and bears; this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, for he has defied the armies of the living God.” 37 Then David said, “The Lord who rescued me from the paw of the lion and the paw of the bear will rescue me from the hand of this Philistine.” Saul said to David, “Go, and may the Lord be with you.” 38 Then Saul had his own military clothes put on David. He put a bronze helmet on David’s head and had him put on armor. 39 David strapped his sword on over the military clothes and tried to walk, but he was not used to them. “I can’t walk in these,” David said to Saul, “I’m not used to them.” So David took them off. 40 Instead, he took his staff in his hand and chose five smooth stones from the wadi and put them in the pouch, in his shepherd’s bag. Then, with his sling in his hand, he approached the Philistine. 41 The Philistine came closer and closer to David, with the shield-bearer in front of him. 42 When the Philistine looked and saw David, he despised him because he was just a youth, healthy and handsome. 43 He said to David, “Am I a dog that you come against me with sticks?” Then he cursed David by his gods. 44 “Come here,” the Philistine called to David, “and I’ll give your flesh to the birds of the sky and the wild beasts!” 45 David said to the Philistine, “You come against me with a sword, spear, and javelin, but I come against you in the name of the Lord of Armies, the God of the ranks of Israel—you have defied him. 46 Today, the Lord will hand you over to me. Today, I’ll strike you down, remove your head, and give the corpses of the Philistine camp to the birds of the sky and the wild creatures of the earth. Then all the world will know that Israel has a God, 47 and this whole assembly will know that it is not by sword or by spear that the Lord saves, for the battle is the Lord’s. He will hand you over to us.” 48 When the Philistine started forward to attack him, David ran quickly to the battle line to meet the Philistine. 49 David put his hand in the bag, took out a stone, slung it, and hit the Philistine on his forehead. The stone sank into his forehead, and he fell facedown to the ground. 50 David defeated the Philistine with a sling and a stone. David overpowered the Philistine and killed him without having a sword. 51 David ran and stood over him. He grabbed the Philistine’s sword, pulled it from its sheath, and used it to kill him. Then he cut off his head. When the Philistines saw that their hero was dead, they fled. 52 The men of Israel and Judah rallied, shouting their battle cry, and chased the Philistines to the entrance of the valley and to the gates of Ekron. Philistine bodies were strewn all along the Shaaraim road to Gath and Ekron. 53 When the Israelites returned from the pursuit of the Philistines, they plundered their camps. 54 David took Goliath’s head and brought it to Jerusalem, but he put Goliath’s weapons in his own tent. 55 When Saul had seen David going out to confront the Philistine, he asked Abner the commander of the army, “Whose son is this youth, Abner?” “Your Majesty, as surely as you live, I don’t know,” Abner replied. 56 The king said, “Find out whose son this young man is!” 57 When David returned from killing the Philistine, Abner took him and brought him before Saul with the Philistine’s head still in his hand. 58 Saul said to him, “Whose son are you, young man?” “The son of your servant Jesse of Bethlehem,” David answered.
This is a story of David as a military hero. Is it a second David introduction story.

David and Goliath

Things were going badly for Israel in a battle with the Philistines in the Valley of Elah. Located in southern Judah and was one of four such valleys that provided access into the hill country from the coastal plain. Without the access these valleys provided, going from the coast to the hills would have been virtually impossible.
The control of the valleys, then, was essential to the defense of the Israelite positions in the hills.
The two armies had taken up positions opposite each other with the valley in between.
The Philistines challenged the Israelites to send someone to fight their champion, the giant Goliath, Who was said to be ten feet tall. Six cubits and a span.
No one from Israel dared to take up the challenge, even though Saul had offered his daughter in marriage to anyone who would successfully fight Goliath (17:1-10, 25).
David, who had come to the battlefield to bring supplies to his brothers who were serving in the army, was astounded to find that no Israelite was willing to risk his life for the honor of his people (17:11-27). As a result, David, despite the sneering of his brother, volunteered to fight Goliath.
Saul relieved to have someone to meet Goliath's challenge, offered David his armor.
In this day you brought your own armor and weapons none our provided. David refused, however, choosing not to sacrifice his mobility for whatever protection Saul's armor might offer.
Chooses his sling. The sling consisted of a leather pouch to which two leather strings were attached.
A stone weighing several ounces was placed in the pouch. The strings were held in such a way that when the slinger whirled the sling rapidly, he could turn loose one string and send the rock toward the target. One practiced in the use of the sling could be quite accurate and deadly. Ancient armies regularly used the sling as a weapon.
David's well-aimed rock hit the giant between the eyes, knocking him to the ground unconscious.
Using Goliath's sword he beheading him
David's success led to an Israelite rout of the Philistines (17:41-58).

Saul’s jealousy

1 Samuel 18:1–30 CSB
1 When David had finished speaking with Saul, Jonathan was bound to David in close friendship, and loved him as much as he loved himself. 2 Saul kept David with him from that day on and did not let him return to his father’s house. 3 Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as much as himself. 4 Then Jonathan removed the robe he was wearing and gave it to David, along with his military tunic, his sword, his bow, and his belt. 5 David marched out with the army and was successful in everything Saul sent him to do. Saul put him in command of the fighting men, which pleased all the people and Saul’s servants as well. 6 As the troops were coming back, when David was returning from killing the Philistine, the women came out from all the cities of Israel to meet King Saul, singing and dancing with tambourines, with shouts of joy, and with three-stringed instruments. 7 As they danced, the women sang: Saul has killed his thousands, but David his tens of thousands. 8 Saul was furious and resented this song. “They credited tens of thousands to David,” he complained, “but they only credited me with thousands. What more can he have but the kingdom?” 9 So Saul watched David jealously from that day forward. 10 The next day an evil spirit sent from God came powerfully on Saul, and he began to rave inside the palace. David was playing the lyre as usual, but Saul was holding a spear, 11 and he threw it, thinking, “I’ll pin David to the wall.” But David got away from him twice. 12 Saul was afraid of David, because the Lord was with David but had left Saul. 13 Therefore, Saul sent David away from him and made him commander over a thousand men. David led the troops 14 and continued to be successful in all his activities because the Lord was with him. 15 When Saul observed that David was very successful, he dreaded him. 16 But all Israel and Judah loved David because he was leading their troops. 17 Saul told David, “Here is my oldest daughter Merab. I’ll give her to you as a wife if you will be a warrior for me and fight the Lord’s battles.” But Saul was thinking, “I don’t need to raise a hand against him; let the hand of the Philistines be against him.” 18 Then David responded, “Who am I, and what is my family or my father’s clan in Israel that I should become the king’s son-in-law?” 19 When it was time to give Saul’s daughter Merab to David, she was given to Adriel the Meholathite as a wife. 20 Now Saul’s daughter Michal loved David, and when it was reported to Saul, it pleased him. 21 “I’ll give her to him,” Saul thought. “She’ll be a trap for him, and the hand of the Philistines will be against him.” So Saul said to David a second time, “You can now be my son-in-law.” 22 Saul then ordered his servants, “Speak to David in private and tell him, ‘Look, the king is pleased with you, and all his servants love you. Therefore, you should become the king’s son-in-law.’ ” 23 Saul’s servants reported these words directly to David, but he replied, “Is it trivial in your sight to become the king’s son-in-law? I am a poor commoner.” 24 The servants reported back to Saul, “These are the words David spoke.” 25 Then Saul replied, “Say this to David: ‘The king desires no other bride-price except a hundred Philistine foreskins, to take revenge on his enemies.’ ” Actually, Saul intended to cause David’s death at the hands of the Philistines. 26 When the servants reported these terms to David, he was pleased to become the king’s son-in-law. Before the wedding day arrived, 27 David and his men went out and killed two hundred Philistines. He brought their foreskins and presented them as full payment to the king to become his son-in-law. Then Saul gave his daughter Michal to David as his wife. 28 Saul realized that the Lord was with David and that his daughter Michal loved him, 29 and he became even more afraid of David. As a result, Saul was David’s enemy from then on. 30 Every time the Philistine commanders came out to fight, David was more successful than all of Saul’s officers. So his name became well known.
David and Jonathan, Saul's son and general, become friends . David’s warrior abilities preceded him. Women of the village were dancing in the streets and singing his praises
1 Samuel 18:6–11 CSB
6 As the troops were coming back, when David was returning from killing the Philistine, the women came out from all the cities of Israel to meet King Saul, singing and dancing with tambourines, with shouts of joy, and with three-stringed instruments. 7 As they danced, the women sang: Saul has killed his thousands, but David his tens of thousands. 8 Saul was furious and resented this song. “They credited tens of thousands to David,” he complained, “but they only credited me with thousands. What more can he have but the kingdom?” 9 So Saul watched David jealously from that day forward. 10 The next day an evil spirit sent from God came powerfully on Saul, and he began to rave inside the palace. David was playing the lyre as usual, but Saul was holding a spear, 11 and he threw it, thinking, “I’ll pin David to the wall.” But David got away from him twice.
Saul became jealous of David. Slipping again into a period of mental disturbance, he attempted to kill David while David was playing music for him (18:6-11).
Throws a sword at him
Saul then attempted to get rid of David by putting him in charge of an armed squadron, hoping David would be killed in battle (remember that for later). Instead, this gave David further opportunity to add to his exploits and to gain more admiration from the people (18:12-16).
After reneging on the promise to give David his older daughter's hand in marriage, Saul then proposed that David marry Michal, his younger daughter.
To earn this right, however, he had to kill one hundred Philistines and bring their foreskins as proof of what he had done. David believed in doing the job right: he brought back two hundred foreskins (18:20-30)

David Flees

David Flees Saul's Murderous Intentions (1 Sam. 19:1-21 :15)
David began to feel Saul's rejection of him, especially after Jonathan told him of Saul's orders that he be killed (19:1-7).
Continued attempts were made on David's life (19:8-17), causing him finally to flee to Samuel at Ramah.
David saw that the situation was impossible and decided to separate himself from Saul's household.
Jonathan agreed to take word to Saul that David had gone to Bethlehem for a feast day (20:1-6).
Jonathan, furthermore, was to note Saul's reaction to David's absence and then give David a signal about whether he felt it safe for David to return. When David did not return, Saul became violent, showing Jonathan that it was unsafe for David to return.
Jonathan let David know that Saul was determined to kill him (20:7--42).
But through all of this David remains loyal to Saul
David came to Nob, just east of Jerusalem. When he gets there he takes Goliath's sword and eats from the table of Shew-bread normally only eaten by the priest. Because the Priest Let David eat their Saul will have the Priest killed.
David will become a mercenary To Saul and the Philistines

Nabal the Vile

1 Samuel 25 CSB
1 Samuel died, and all Israel assembled to mourn for him, and they buried him by his home in Ramah. David then went down to the Wilderness of Paran. 2 A man in Maon had a business in Carmel; he was a very rich man with three thousand sheep and one thousand goats and was shearing his sheep in Carmel. 3 The man’s name was Nabal, and his wife’s name, Abigail. The woman was intelligent and beautiful, but the man, a Calebite, was harsh and evil in his dealings. 4 While David was in the wilderness, he heard that Nabal was shearing sheep, 5 so David sent ten young men instructing them, “Go up to Carmel, and when you come to Nabal, greet him in my name. 6 Then say this: ‘Long life to you, and peace to you, peace to your family, and peace to all that is yours. 7 I hear that you are shearing. When your shepherds were with us, we did not harass them, and nothing of theirs was missing the whole time they were in Carmel. 8 Ask your young men, and they will tell you. So let my young men find favor with you, for we have come on a feast day. Please give whatever you have on hand to your servants and to your son David.’ ” 9 David’s young men went and said all these things to Nabal on David’s behalf, and they waited. 10 Nabal asked them, “Who is David? Who is Jesse’s son? Many slaves these days are running away from their masters. 11 Am I supposed to take my bread, my water, and my meat that I butchered for my shearers and give them to these men? I don’t know where they are from.” 12 David’s young men retraced their steps. When they returned to him, they reported all these words. 13 He said to his men, “All of you, put on your swords!” So each man put on his sword, and David also put on his sword. About four hundred men followed David while two hundred stayed with the supplies. 14 One of Nabal’s young men informed Abigail, Nabal’s wife, “Look, David sent messengers from the wilderness to greet our master, but he screamed at them. 15 The men treated us very well. When we were in the field, we weren’t harassed and nothing of ours was missing the whole time we were living among them. 16 They were a wall around us, both day and night, the entire time we were with them herding the sheep. 17 Now consider carefully what you should do, because there is certain to be trouble for our master and his entire family. He is such a worthless fool nobody can talk to him!” 18 Abigail hurried, taking two hundred loaves of bread, two clay jars of wine, five butchered sheep, a bushel of roasted grain, one hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of pressed figs, and loaded them on donkeys. 19 Then she said to her male servants, “Go ahead of me. I will be right behind you.” But she did not tell her husband, Nabal. 20 As she rode the donkey down a mountain pass hidden from view, she saw David and his men coming toward her and met them. 21 David had just said, “I guarded everything that belonged to this man in the wilderness for nothing. He was not missing anything, yet he paid me back evil for good. 22 May God punish me and do so severely if I let any of his males survive until morning.” 23 When Abigail saw David, she quickly got off the donkey and knelt down with her face to the ground and paid homage to David. 24 She knelt at his feet and said, “The guilt is mine, my lord, but please let your servant speak to you directly. Listen to the words of your servant. 25 My lord should pay no attention to this worthless fool Nabal, for he lives up to his name: His name means ‘stupid,’ and stupidity is all he knows. I, your servant, didn’t see my lord’s young men whom you sent. 26 Now my lord, as surely as the Lord lives and as you yourself live—it is the Lord who kept you from participating in bloodshed and avenging yourself by your own hand—may your enemies and those who intend to harm my lord be like Nabal. 27 Let this gift your servant has brought to my lord be given to the young men who follow my lord. 28 Please forgive your servant’s offense, for the Lord is certain to make a lasting dynasty for my lord because he fights the Lord’s battles. Throughout your life, may evil not be found in you. 29 “Someone is pursuing you and intends to take your life. My lord’s life is tucked safely in the place where the Lord your God protects the living, but he is flinging away your enemies’ lives like stones from a sling. 30 When the Lord does for my lord all the good he promised you and appoints you ruler over Israel, 31 there will not be remorse or a troubled conscience for my lord because of needless bloodshed or my lord’s revenge. And when the Lord does good things for my lord, may you remember me your servant.” 32 Then David said to Abigail, “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who sent you to meet me today! 33 May your discernment be blessed, and may you be blessed. Today you kept me from participating in bloodshed and avenging myself by my own hand. 34 Otherwise, as surely as the Lord God of Israel lives, who prevented me from harming you, if you had not come quickly to meet me, Nabal wouldn’t have had any males left by morning light.” 35 Then David accepted what she had brought him and said, “Go home in peace. See, I have heard what you said and have granted your request.” 36 Then Abigail went to Nabal, and there he was in his house, holding a feast fit for a king. Nabal’s heart was cheerful, and he was very drunk, so she didn’t say anything to him until morning light. 37 In the morning when Nabal sobered up, his wife told him about these events. His heart died and he became a stone. 38 About ten days later, the Lord struck Nabal dead. 39 When David heard that Nabal was dead, he said, “Blessed be the Lord who championed my cause against Nabal’s insults and restrained his servant from doing evil. The Lord brought Nabal’s evil deeds back on his own head.” Then David sent messengers to speak to Abigail about marrying him. 40 When David’s servants came to Abigail at Carmel, they said to her, “David sent us to bring you to him as a wife.” 41 She stood up, paid homage with her face to the ground, and said, “Here I am, your servant, a slave to wash the feet of my lord’s servants.” 42 Then Abigail got up quickly, and with her five female servants accompanying her, rode on the donkey following David’s messengers. And so she became his wife. 43 David also married Ahinoam of Jezreel, and the two of them became his wives. 44 But Saul gave his daughter Michal, David’s wife, to Palti son of Laish, who was from Gallim.
1 Samuel 25:1 CSB
1 Samuel died, and all Israel assembled to mourn for him, and they buried him by his home in Ramah. David then went down to the Wilderness of Paran.
Samuel Dies Verse 1
Nabal - "Vile thing." Nabal had large herds of sheep and goats-three thousand sheep and one thousand goats- Rich man.
He hires David the mercenary to protect him from raiders. However he refuses to pay. Nabal's wife Abigail, Unknown to her husband Paid the soldiers. When Abigail returned from paying the soldiers Nabal is on a drinking binge. "He became Ill (25:37). He died ten days later (25:36-38).
Abigail, now a wealthy window. David felt he must marry her to show her his gratitude for the action on his behalf. Abigail was willing, so the marriage was carried out. He also married Abinoam from Jezreel, but lost Saul's daughter Michal. Whom Saul had given to another man when David fled. This was an act designed to insult David.
David is building a harem

The End of Saul's Reign

Saul and the Witch of Endor

1 Samuel 28:3–25 CSB
3 By this time Samuel had died, all Israel had mourned for him and buried him in Ramah, his city, and Saul had removed the mediums and spiritists from the land. 4 The Philistines gathered and camped at Shunem. So Saul gathered all Israel, and they camped at Gilboa. 5 When Saul saw the Philistine camp, he was afraid and his heart pounded. 6 He inquired of the Lord, but the Lord did not answer him in dreams or by the Urim or by the prophets. 7 Saul then said to his servants, “Find me a woman who is a medium, so I can go and consult her.” His servants replied, “There is a woman at En-dor who is a medium.” 8 Saul disguised himself by putting on different clothes and set out with two of his men. They came to the woman at night, and Saul said, “Consult a spirit for me. Bring up for me the one I tell you.” 9 But the woman said to him, “You surely know what Saul has done, how he has cut off the mediums and spiritists from the land. Why are you setting a trap for me to get me killed?” 10 Then Saul swore to her by the Lord: “As surely as the Lord lives, no punishment will come to you from this.” 11 “Who is it that you want me to bring up for you?” the woman asked. “Bring up Samuel for me,” he answered. 12 When the woman saw Samuel, she screamed, and then she asked Saul, “Why did you deceive me? You are Saul!” 13 But the king said to her, “Don’t be afraid. What do you see?” “I see a spirit form coming up out of the earth,” the woman answered. 14 Then Saul asked her, “What does he look like?” “An old man is coming up,” she replied. “He’s wearing a robe.” Then Saul knew that it was Samuel, and he knelt low with his face to the ground and paid homage. 15 “Why have you disturbed me by bringing me up?” Samuel asked Saul. “I’m in serious trouble,” replied Saul. “The Philistines are fighting against me and God has turned away from me. He doesn’t answer me anymore, either through the prophets or in dreams. So I’ve called on you to tell me what I should do.” 16 Samuel answered, “Since the Lord has turned away from you and has become your enemy, why are you asking me? 17 The Lord has done exactly what he said through me: The Lord has torn the kingship out of your hand and given it to your neighbor David. 18 You did not obey the Lord and did not carry out his burning anger against Amalek; therefore the Lord has done this to you today. 19 The Lord will also hand Israel over to the Philistines along with you. Tomorrow you and your sons will be with me, and the Lord will hand Israel’s army over to the Philistines.” 20 Immediately, Saul fell flat on the ground. He was terrified by Samuel’s words and was also weak because he had not eaten anything all day and all night. 21 The woman came over to Saul, and she saw that he was terrified and said to him, “Look, your servant has obeyed you. I took my life in my hands and did what you told me to do. 22 Now please listen to your servant. Let me set some food in front of you. Eat and it will give you strength so you can go on your way.” 23 He refused, saying, “I won’t eat,” but when his servants and the woman urged him, he listened to them. He got up off the ground and sat on the bed. 24 The woman had a fattened calf at her house, and she quickly slaughtered it. She also took flour, kneaded it, and baked unleavened bread. 25 She served it to Saul and his servants, and they ate. Afterward, they got up and left that night.
Saul was desperate. The Philistines had moved from Aphek, in the central coastal plain, to Shunem, near Mount Gilboa, where Saul's troops were assembled.
There was an air of doom about Saul as the Philistine army gathered for the battle that would come next day
Samuel was dead, David was in the camp of the enemy, Finally, he sought a medium (or witch) who supposedly could call up the dead. Most of them had been banished by Saul
Finally, a medium was found in the nearby village of Endor. He ask for Samuel. Saul is told that him and his military will Join Samuel, And rebukes him for calling him. Giving him a message of doom

Saul Dies

Battle at Mt. Gilboa. He becomes mortally wounded so he kills himself.
The Philistines hanged the bodies of Saul and some of his sons on the wall of Beth-Shan. The people of Jabesh-Gilead stole the bodies during the night and disposed of them properly.
2 Samuel 1 CSB
1 After the death of Saul, David returned from defeating the Amalekites and stayed at Ziklag two days. 2 On the third day a man with torn clothes and dust on his head came from Saul’s camp. When he came to David, he fell to the ground and paid homage. 3 David asked him, “Where have you come from?” He replied to him, “I’ve escaped from the Israelite camp.” 4 “What was the outcome? Tell me,” David asked him. “The troops fled from the battle,” he answered. “Many of the troops have fallen and are dead. Also, Saul and his son Jonathan are dead.” 5 David asked the young man who had brought him the report, “How do you know Saul and his son Jonathan are dead?” 6 “I happened to be on Mount Gilboa,” he replied, “and there was Saul, leaning on his spear. At that very moment the chariots and the cavalry were closing in on him. 7 When he turned around and saw me, he called out to me, so I answered: I’m at your service. 8 He asked me, ‘Who are you?’ I told him: I’m an Amalekite. 9 Then he begged me, ‘Stand over me and kill me, for I’m mortally wounded, but my life still lingers.’ 10 So I stood over him and killed him because I knew that after he had fallen he couldn’t survive. I took the crown that was on his head and the armband that was on his arm, and I’ve brought them here to my lord.” 11 Then David took hold of his clothes and tore them, and all the men with him did the same. 12 They mourned, wept, and fasted until the evening for those who died by the sword—for Saul, his son Jonathan, the Lord’s people, and the house of Israel. 13 David inquired of the young man who had brought him the report, “Where are you from?” “I’m the son of a resident alien,” he said. “I’m an Amalekite.” 14 David questioned him, “How is it that you were not afraid to lift your hand to destroy the Lord’s anointed?” 15 Then David summoned one of his servants and said, “Come here and kill him!” The servant struck him, and he died. 16 For David had said to the Amalekite, “Your blood is on your own head because your own mouth testified against you by saying, ‘I killed the Lord’s anointed.’ ” 17 David sang the following lament for Saul and his son Jonathan, 18 and he ordered that the Judahites be taught The Song of the Bow. It is written in the Book of Jashar: 19 The splendor of Israel lies slain on your heights. How the mighty have fallen! 20 Do not tell it in Gath, don’t announce it in the marketplaces of Ashkelon, or the daughters of the Philistines will rejoice, and the daughters of the uncircumcised will celebrate. 21 Mountains of Gilboa, let no dew or rain be on you, or fields of offerings, for there the shield of the mighty was defiled— the shield of Saul, no longer anointed with oil. 22 Jonathan’s bow never retreated, Saul’s sword never returned unstained, from the blood of the slain, from the flesh of the mighty. 23 Saul and Jonathan, loved and delightful, they were not parted in life or in death. They were swifter than eagles, stronger than lions. 24 Daughters of Israel, weep for Saul, who clothed you in scarlet, with luxurious things, who decked your garments with gold ornaments. 25 How the mighty have fallen in the thick of battle! Jonathan lies slain on your heights. 26 I grieve for you, Jonathan, my brother. You were such a friend to me. Your love for me was more wondrous than the love of women. 27 How the mighty have fallen and the weapons of war have perished!
David is told Saul is Dead. Israel was crying out for leadership. Ishbaal (Baal’s Man), Saul's son and successor, was too weak to ever unite the people behind him.

David as King

David was the only person with the charisma and intelligence needed to build a national following
David: King Over Judah (1000-993 B.C.E.) 7 ½ years.
David’s Reaction to Saul’s Death. David was at Ziklag when the news of Saul's death on Mt. Gilboa came to him. The messenger told David he had found Saul still alive, but that he had killed Saul as Saul had asked him to do. He had brought Saul's crown and armband as proof that Saul was dead. David ordered the messenger's death because he had claimed to have killed Saul, the "LORD'S anointed" David Laments over Saul.
David as King of Judah (2 Sam. 2:1-11). David was anointed king of Judah at Hebron. Abner (Saul's general) had placed Saul's son, Ishbaal (1 Chr. 8:33), on the throne.
Ishbaal - “Baal's man". People change his name to Ishbosheth - “man of Shame”.  He ruled from Transjordan over the northern tribes (2:8-11).

Civil War

(2 Sam. 2:12-32)
Broke out at the "pool of Gibeon."
The battle started when the forces of Abner and of Joab, David's general, met there. A wrestling match was proposed for twelve men from each side, but it turned deadly when swords were used instead.
Asahel, Joab's brother ran after Abner as he fled from the scene. Abner killed him. Joab pursued Abner's forces until they took a stand, causing Joab to withdraw (2:12-32). Abner Asks for Peace (2 Sam. 3:1-21).
He is defeated. Peace will happen if David promised to Spare his life And Michal is returned to David.

Joab Murders Abner

2 Sam. 3:22-39
As Abner was leaving the meeting with David, Joab met him. Abner and David had a covenant that made David responsible to avenge Abner's murder. But he doesn’t.

The Murder of Ishbosheth

2 Samuel 4:1–12 CSB
1 When Saul’s son Ish-bosheth heard that Abner had died in Hebron, he gave up, and all Israel was dismayed. 2 Saul’s son had two men who were leaders of raiding parties: one named Baanah and the other Rechab, sons of Rimmon the Beerothite of the Benjaminites. Beeroth is also considered part of Benjamin, 3 and the Beerothites fled to Gittaim and still reside there as aliens today. 4 Saul’s son Jonathan had a son whose feet were crippled. He was five years old when the report about Saul and Jonathan came from Jezreel. His nanny picked him up and fled, but as she was hurrying to flee, he fell and became lame. His name was Mephibosheth. 5 Rechab and Baanah, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, set out and arrived at Ish-bosheth’s house during the heat of the day while the king was taking his midday nap. 6 They entered the interior of the house as if to get wheat and stabbed him in the stomach. Then Rechab and his brother Baanah escaped. 7 They had entered the house while Ish-bosheth was lying on his bed in his bedroom and stabbed and killed him. They removed his head, took it, and traveled by way of the Arabah all night. 8 They brought Ish-bosheth’s head to David at Hebron and said to the king, “Here’s the head of Ish-bosheth son of Saul, your enemy who intended to take your life. Today the Lord has granted vengeance to my lord the king against Saul and his offspring.” 9 But David answered Rechab and his brother Baanah, sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, “As the Lord lives, the one who has redeemed my life from every distress, 10 when the person told me, ‘Look, Saul is dead,’ he thought he was a bearer of good news, but I seized him and put him to death at Ziklag. That was my reward to him for his news! 11 How much more when wicked men kill a righteous man in his own house on his own bed! So now, should I not require his blood from you and purge you from the earth?” 12 So David gave orders to the young men, and they killed Rechab and Baanah. They cut off their hands and feet and hung their bodies by the pool in Hebron, but they took Ish-bosheth’s head and buried it in Abner’s tomb in Hebron.
With Abner dead, Ishbosheth's kingdom fell apart. Two men murdered him as he slept. They cut off his head and carried their trophy to David at Hebron. David reacted as he had to the report of Saul's death-he had the murderers executed. Joab is becoming a loose cannon that takes care of David’s Problems.

David Makes Jerusalem His Capital

David is King for 33 years in Israel. 40 year total reign - Complete time. King Over Israel (993-961 B.C.E.)
David Makes Jerusalem His Capital (2 Sam. 5:1-10)


Heavily fortified Jebusite city. Not even part of Israel has to be captured first. Built on the site where Abraham attempted to sacrifice Isaac (Some point to the Hill Golgotha as the exact location). The invaders got into the city by entering a tunnel that carried the waters of a spring under its walls. A shaft was cut down to the tunnel so that people could reach the water without going outside the walls. David's men got inside the city and then opened the gate so that others could come in.
Jerusalem as capital was a good move. It was a neutral site.
Hebron, a city of Judah, the permanent capital would have stirred up considerable resentment, especially from the Ephraim, Judah's rival for first place among the tribes.
Jerusalem will also become the center of worship


David's alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre,
2 Samuel 5:11–12 CSB
11 King Hiram of Tyre sent envoys to David; he also sent cedar logs, carpenters, and stonemasons, and they built a palace for David. 12 Then David knew that the Lord had established him as king over Israel and had exalted his kingdom for the sake of his people Israel.
Furnished builders and materials for David's projects

Defeat of the Philistines

The Philistines did not wait long to test David. Twice they attacked Israel in the Rephaim Valley, and David, after consulting the LORD, defeated them both times (5:17-25).
This puts away the Philistine threat.

The Ark Comes To Jerusalem

Bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:1-23)
Ark being kept in a private home for over seventy years. David wanted to bring it to Jerusalem.
The first attempt: While moving the ark an ox stumbles. Uzzah, one of the men who was moving the ark reaches out and stops it from falling.
He died when he touched the Ark, "and God smote him because he reached out his hand to the ark" (6:7). The awe of the holy object caused an immediate halt to David's plan for three months (6:1-11). Which is why the ark was suppose to be carried by priest and not put on a cart to be moved See the book of Number.
During the three-month period, Obed-edom (in whose house the Ark was kept) had evidence of God's blessing on him.
David tries to move it again. This time, a sacrifice was made after the Ark was moved only six steps. David played the role of priest, wearing the priestly garment, and dancing before the Ark as it was brought into the city (6:12-17). Dancing so hard that his Ephod, outer garment, fell off.
Michal, who had been returned against her will to David's harem as a condition of the covenant with Abner (3:13), Watched the events from her window. The next time she saw David, she told him that he had acted like a dirty old man. David argued that he was dancing to honor the LORD. Because of her criticism (6:16-23), she was demoted in the harem. And will have no children because she did not praise the Lord

Davidic Covenant

2 Samuel 7:1–29 CSB
1 When the king had settled into his palace and the Lord had given him rest on every side from all his enemies, 2 the king said to the prophet Nathan, “Look, I am living in a cedar house while the ark of God sits inside tent curtains.” 3 So Nathan told the king, “Go and do all that is on your mind, for the Lord is with you.” 4 But that night the word of the Lord came to Nathan: 5 “Go to my servant David and say, ‘This is what the Lord says: Are you to build me a house to dwell in? 6 From the time I brought the Israelites out of Egypt until today I have not dwelt in a house; instead, I have been moving around with a tent as my dwelling. 7 In all my journeys with all the Israelites, have I ever spoken a word to one of the tribal leaders of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd my people Israel, asking: Why haven’t you built me a house of cedar?’ 8 “So now this is what you are to say to my servant David: ‘This is what the Lord of Armies says: I took you from the pasture, from tending the flock, to be ruler over my people Israel. 9 I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have destroyed all your enemies before you. I will make a great name for you like that of the greatest on the earth. 10 I will designate a place for my people Israel and plant them, so that they may live there and not be disturbed again. Evildoers will not continue to oppress them as they have done 11 ever since the day I ordered judges to be over my people Israel. I will give you rest from all your enemies. “ ‘The Lord declares to you: The Lord himself will make a house for you. 12 When your time comes and you rest with your ancestors, I will raise up after you your descendant, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He is the one who will build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will discipline him with a rod of men and blows from mortals. 15 But my faithful love will never leave him as it did when I removed it from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16 Your house and kingdom will endure before me forever, and your throne will be established forever.’ ” 17 Nathan reported all these words and this entire vision to David. 18 Then King David went in, sat in the Lord’s presence, and said, Who am I, Lord God, and what is my house that you have brought me this far? 19 What you have done so far was a little thing to you, Lord God, for you have also spoken about your servant’s house in the distant future. And this is a revelation for mankind, Lord God. 20 What more can David say to you? You know your servant, Lord God. 21 Because of your word and according to your will, you have revealed all these great things to your servant. 22 This is why you are great, Lord God. There is no one like you, and there is no God besides you, as all we have heard confirms. 23 And who is like your people Israel? God came to one nation on earth in order to redeem a people for himself, to make a name for himself, and to perform for them great and awesome acts, driving out nations and their gods before your people you redeemed for yourself from Egypt. 24 You established your people Israel to be your own people forever, and you, Lord, have become their God. 25 Now, Lord God, fulfill the promise forever that you have made to your servant and his house. Do as you have promised, 26 so that your name will be exalted forever, when it is said, “The Lord of Armies is God over Israel.” The house of your servant David will be established before you 27 since you, Lord of Armies, God of Israel, have revealed this to your servant when you said, “I will build a house for you.” Therefore, your servant has found the courage to pray this prayer to you. 28 Lord God, you are God; your words are true, and you have promised this good thing to your servant. 29 Now, please bless your servant’s house so that it will continue before you forever. For you, Lord God, have spoken, and with your blessing your servant’s house will be blessed forever.
Bayit - “house”
David is in his house “Palace”. Sees that God has no permanent house, wants to build a temple. Nathan - “Gift”, David’s Spiritual advisor. At first encourages David to build a temple. But later receives a vision that tells David not to build the temple. Has a vision. No Need to tie God down, God had established David.
God will make the house of David great, “dynasty”.
Unconditional covenant - The ideal king comes from the house of David

David's Military Success

2 Samuel 8:1–18 CSB
1 After this, David defeated the Philistines, subdued them, and took Metheg-ammah from Philistine control. 2 He also defeated the Moabites, and after making them lie down on the ground, he measured them off with a cord. He measured every two cord lengths of those to be put to death and one full length of those to be kept alive. So the Moabites became David’s subjects and brought tribute. 3 David also defeated Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah, when he went to restore his control at the Euphrates River. 4 David captured seventeen hundred horsemen and twenty thousand foot soldiers from him, and he hamstrung all the horses and kept a hundred chariots. 5 When the Arameans of Damascus came to assist King Hadadezer of Zobah, David struck down twenty-two thousand Aramean men. 6 Then he placed garrisons in Aram of Damascus, and the Arameans became David’s subjects and brought tribute. The Lord made David victorious wherever he went. 7 David took the gold shields of Hadadezer’s officers and brought them to Jerusalem. 8 King David also took huge quantities of bronze from Betah and Berothai, Hadadezer’s cities. 9 When King Toi of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of Hadadezer, 10 he sent his son Joram to King David to greet him and to congratulate him because David had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him, for Toi and Hadadezer had fought many wars. Joram had items of silver, gold, and bronze with him. 11 King David also dedicated these to the Lord, along with the silver and gold he had dedicated from all the nations he had subdued—12 from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, the Amalekites, and the spoil of Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah. 13 David made a reputation for himself when he returned from striking down eighteen thousand Edomites in Salt Valley. 14 He placed garrisons throughout Edom, and all the Edomites were subject to David. The Lord made David victorious wherever he went. 15 So David reigned over all Israel, administering justice and righteousness for all his people. 16 Joab son of Zeruiah was over the army; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was court historian; 17 Zadok son of Ahitub and Ahimelech son of Abiathar were priests; Seraiah was court secretary; 18 Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David’s sons were chief officials.
200 years since the Israelites have entered into the land of Canaan. David will Secure the land.

The Court History of David

The Books 2 Samuel 9:1-20:26 and 1 Kings 1, 2 . Shows the Good and the Bad of David

Adoption of Mephibosheth

2 Samuel 9:1–13 CSB
1 David asked, “Is there anyone remaining from the family of Saul I can show kindness to for Jonathan’s sake?” 2 There was a servant of Saul’s family named Ziba. They summoned him to David, and the king said to him, “Are you Ziba?” “I am your servant,” he replied. 3 So the king asked, “Is there anyone left of Saul’s family that I can show the kindness of God to?” Ziba said to the king, “There is still Jonathan’s son who was injured in both feet.” 4 The king asked him, “Where is he?” Ziba answered the king, “You’ll find him in Lo-debar at the house of Machir son of Ammiel.” 5 So King David had him brought from the house of Machir son of Ammiel in Lo-debar. 6 Mephibosheth son of Jonathan son of Saul came to David, fell facedown, and paid homage. David said, “Mephibosheth!” “I am your servant,” he replied. 7 “Don’t be afraid,” David said to him, “since I intend to show you kindness for the sake of your father Jonathan. I will restore to you all your grandfather Saul’s fields, and you will always eat meals at my table.” 8 Mephibosheth paid homage and said, “What is your servant that you take an interest in a dead dog like me?” 9 Then the king summoned Saul’s attendant Ziba and said to him, “I have given to your master’s grandson all that belonged to Saul and his family. 10 You, your sons, and your servants are to work the ground for him, and you are to bring in the crops so your master’s grandson will have food to eat. But Mephibosheth, your master’s grandson, is always to eat at my table.” Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants. 11 Ziba said to the king, “Your servant will do all my lord the king commands.” So Mephibosheth ate at David’s table just like one of the king’s sons. 12 Mephibosheth had a young son whose name was Mica. All those living in Ziba’s house were Mephibosheth’s servants. 13 However, Mephibosheth lived in Jerusalem because he always ate at the king’s table. His feet had been injured.
David's loyalty to Jonathan caused him to make Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son, a ward of the state. He adopts him.

The War Against the Ammonites

2 Samuel 10:1–9 CSB
1 Some time later, the king of the Ammonites died, and his son Hanun became king in his place. 2 Then David said, “I’ll show kindness to Hanun son of Nahash, just as his father showed kindness to me.” So David sent his emissaries to console Hanun concerning his father. However, when they arrived in the land of the Ammonites, 3 the Ammonite leaders said to Hanun their lord, “Just because David has sent men with condolences for you, do you really believe he’s showing respect for your father? Instead, hasn’t David sent his emissaries in order to scout out the city, spy on it, and demolish it?” 4 So Hanun took David’s emissaries, shaved off half their beards, cut their clothes in half at the hips, and sent them away. 5 When this was reported to David, he sent someone to meet them, since they were deeply humiliated. The king said, “Stay in Jericho until your beards grow back; then return.” 6 When the Ammonites realized they had become repulsive to David, they hired twenty thousand foot soldiers from the Arameans of Beth-rehob and Zobah, one thousand men from the king of Maacah, and twelve thousand men from Tob. 7 David heard about it and sent Joab and all the elite troops. 8 The Ammonites marched out and lined up in battle formation at the entrance to the city gate while the Arameans of Zobah and Rehob and the men of Tob and Maacah were in the field by themselves. 9 When Joab saw that there was a battle line in front of him and another behind him, he chose some of Israel’s finest young men and lined up in formation to engage the Arameans.
David will not go to battle with the men. He will lead from his new palace.

David and Bathsheba

Chapters 11 -12 pivotal in David’s reign.
During the Ammonite wars, David stopped going to battle with his men.
 With the enlarged Kingdom, David probably felt that he had to pay more attention to matters of government. His advisors may have insisted that he no longer go to battle with them. If he were to be killed, it would have been an irreplaceable loss to the kingdom.
One day he was talking a stroll on his roof in the evening, He saw a beautiful woman talking a bath. Bathsheba was doing no wrong. Bathing was normally done on the roof where the sun could heat the water and where one could be in privacy.
Bathsheba made a command appearance in the palace, with the result that she became pregnant with David's child (11:2-5). This indiscretion will bring down his kingship. David calls for her husband, Uriah the Hittite. Which in 2 Samuel 23 we learn that He had been one of David’s mighty men, One of the top of his soldiers. He calls him not to confess but to cover up. One sin leads to another.
He tries to get Bathsheba and Uriah to sleep together so that Uriah will think the child is his. Uriah refuses to sleep with her because he felt it was unpatriotic to enjoy the pleasures of wife and home while his friends were still fighting.
Finally, in desperation, David sent Uriah back to the battle, carrying a secret order to Joab to put him in the front lines so he would be killed (11:6-21).
The word came back that Uriah was indeed dead. After a proper period of mourning, Bathsheba entered the king's harem (11:22-27).
Nathan, prophet and spiritual advisor to the king, confronted David with what he had done. In that confrontation, some of the character of the king was revealed. Instead of banishing or even killing Nathan for his audacity, David faced his guilt and admitted his wrong (12:1-15).
Psalm 51 CSB
For the choir director. A psalm of David, when the prophet Nathan came to him after he had gone to Bathsheba. 1 Be gracious to me, God, according to your faithful love; according to your abundant compassion, blot out my rebellion. 2 Completely wash away my guilt and cleanse me from my sin. 3 For I am conscious of my rebellion, and my sin is always before me. 4 Against you—you alone—I have sinned and done this evil in your sight. So you are right when you pass sentence; you are blameless when you judge. 5 Indeed, I was guilty when I was born; I was sinful when my mother conceived me. 6 Surely you desire integrity in the inner self, and you teach me wisdom deep within. 7 Purify me with hyssop, and I will be clean; wash me, and I will be whiter than snow. 8 Let me hear joy and gladness; let the bones you have crushed rejoice. 9 Turn your face away from my sins and blot out all my guilt. 10 God, create a clean heart for me and renew a steadfast spirit within me. 11 Do not banish me from your presence or take your Holy Spirit from me. 12 Restore the joy of your salvation to me, and sustain me by giving me a willing spirit. 13 Then I will teach the rebellious your ways, and sinners will return to you. 14 Save me from the guilt of bloodshed, God— God of my salvation— and my tongue will sing of your righteousness. 15 Lord, open my lips, and my mouth will declare your praise. 16 You do not want a sacrifice, or I would give it; you are not pleased with a burnt offering. 17 The sacrifice pleasing to God is a broken spirit. You will not despise a broken and humbled heart, God. 18 In your good pleasure, cause Zion to prosper; build the walls of Jerusalem. 19 Then you will delight in righteous sacrifices, whole burnt offerings; then bulls will be offered on your altar.
Psalm 51 is David’s confession of sin. Hyssop refers to a purification process.
The child Bathsheba has will die.
Not too long afterward, a second child, Solomon, was born (12:24-25). After Solomon's birth, David returned to battle against the Ammonites and defeated them (12:26-31).

The rape of Tamar

2 Samuel 13
Absalom and Tamar were the children of one of David's wives. Amnon was the son of another wife. Amnon fell in love with Tamar, his beautiful half-sister, but there seemed to be no way he could marry her. At the suggestion of a cousin, the lovesick Amnon persuaded David to send Tamar to his house to cook for him while he pretended to be ill. While she was there, he raped her.
After he had gotten what he wanted, he refused to marry her (13:1-19).
This meant that Tamar would never be able to many, since virginity was considered to be essential for marriage.
David took no action against Amnon for his abuse of Tamar.
Two years later Absalom invited Amnon to a party. Under orders from Absalom, his servants waited until Amnon was drunk and then stabbed him to death. Absalom, with Joab's help, fled to his mother's homeland of Geshur (13:38).

The Widow's Tale

2 Samuel 14:1–24 CSB
1 Joab son of Zeruiah realized that the king’s mind was on Absalom. 2 So Joab sent someone to Tekoa to bring a wise woman from there. He told her, “Pretend to be in mourning: dress in mourning clothes and don’t put on any oil. Act like a woman who has been mourning for the dead for a long time. 3 Go to the king and speak these words to him.” Then Joab told her exactly what to say. 4 When the woman from Tekoa came to the king, she fell facedown to the ground, paid homage, and said, “Help me, Your Majesty!” 5 “What’s the matter?” the king asked her. “Sadly, I am a widow; my husband died,” she said. 6 “Your servant had two sons. They were fighting in the field with no one to separate them, and one struck the other and killed him. 7 Now the whole clan has risen up against your servant and said, ‘Hand over the one who killed his brother so we may put him to death for the life of the brother he murdered. We will eliminate the heir!’ They would extinguish my one remaining ember by not preserving my husband’s name or posterity on earth.” 8 The king told the woman, “Go home. I will issue a command on your behalf.” 9 Then the woman of Tekoa said to the king, “My lord the king, may any blame be on me and my father’s family, and may the king and his throne be innocent.” 10 “Whoever speaks to you,” the king said, “bring him to me. He will not trouble you again!” 11 She replied, “Please, may the king invoke the Lord your God, so that the avenger of blood will not increase the loss, and they will not eliminate my son!” “As the Lord lives,” he vowed, “not a hair of your son will fall to the ground.” 12 Then the woman said, “Please, may your servant speak a word to my lord the king?” “Speak,” he replied. 13 The woman asked, “Why have you devised something similar against the people of God? When the king spoke as he did about this matter, he has pronounced his own guilt. The king has not brought back his own banished one. 14 We will certainly die and be like water poured out on the ground, which can’t be recovered. But God would not take away a life; he would devise plans so that the one banished from him does not remain banished. 15 “Now therefore, I’ve come to present this matter to my lord the king because the people have made me afraid. Your servant thought: I must speak to the king. Perhaps the king will grant his servant’s request. 16 The king will surely listen in order to keep his servant from the grasp of this man who would eliminate both me and my son from God’s inheritance. 17 Your servant thought: May the word of my lord the king bring relief, for my lord the king is able to discern the good and the bad like the angel of God. May the Lord your God be with you.” 18 Then the king answered the woman, “I’m going to ask you something; don’t conceal it from me!” “Let my lord the king speak,” the woman replied. 19 The king asked, “Did Joab put you up to all this?” The woman answered. “As you live, my lord the king, no one can turn to the right or left from all my lord the king says. Yes, your servant Joab is the one who gave orders to me; he told your servant exactly what to say. 20 Joab your servant has done this to address the issue indirectly, but my lord has wisdom like the wisdom of the angel of God, knowing everything on earth.” 21 Then the king said to Joab, “I hereby grant this request. Go, bring back the young man Absalom.” 22 Joab fell with his face to the ground in homage and blessed the king. “Today,” Joab said, “your servant knows I have found favor with you, my lord the king, because the king has granted the request of your servant.” 23 So Joab got up, went to Geshur, and brought Absalom to Jerusalem. 24 However, the king added, “He may return to his house, but he may not see my face.” So Absalom returned to his house, but he did not see the king.
Joab, knowing that David wanted an excuse to let Absalom come back home, took an old woman from Tekoa to David. She told him a sad story of her two sons. According to this story, one of the widow's sons had murdered the other. Her relatives were ready to kill the surviving son to avenge the death of the dead son. Since this would leave no living male to carry on the family name, she was appealing to the King for protection for the murderer. David ruled that the need for an heir to carry his father's name was more important than punishment for the murderer. When David had so ruled, the grieving mother suddenly turned and rebuked David for not allowing Absalom to come home.
David immediately was suspicious that Joab had planned the performance of the "widow." He commanded Joab to bring Absalom home, but on the condition that he not be allowed to see David (14:18-24).

Absalom, the Troublemaker

2 Samuel 14:25–15:6 CSB
25 No man in all Israel was as handsome and highly praised as Absalom. From the sole of his foot to the top of his head, he did not have a single flaw. 26 When he shaved his head—he shaved it at the end of every year because his hair got so heavy for him that he had to shave it off—he would weigh the hair from his head and it would be five pounds according to the royal standard. 27 Three sons were born to Absalom, and a daughter named Tamar, who was a beautiful woman. 28 Absalom resided in Jerusalem two years but never saw the king. 29 Then Absalom sent for Joab in order to send him to the king, but Joab was unwilling to come to him. So he sent again, a second time, but he still would not come. 30 Then Absalom said to his servants, “See, Joab has a field right next to mine, and he has barley there. Go and set fire to it!” So Absalom’s servants set the field on fire. 31 Then Joab came to Absalom’s house and demanded, “Why did your servants set my field on fire?” 32 “Look,” Absalom explained to Joab, “I sent for you and said, ‘Come here. I want to send you to the king to ask: Why have I come back from Geshur? I’d be better off if I were still there.’ So now, let me see the king. If I am guilty, let him kill me.” 33 Joab went to the king and told him. So David summoned Absalom, who came to the king and paid homage with his face to the ground before him. Then the king kissed Absalom. 1 After this, Absalom got himself a chariot, horses, and fifty men to run before him. 2 He would get up early and stand beside the road leading to the city gate. Whenever anyone had a grievance to bring before the king for settlement, Absalom called out to him and asked, “What city are you from?” If he replied, “Your servant is from one of the tribes of Israel,” 3 Absalom said to him, “Look, your claims are good and right, but the king does not have anyone to listen to you.” 4 He added, “If only someone would appoint me judge in the land. Then anyone who had a grievance or dispute could come to me, and I would make sure he received justice.” 5 When a person approached to pay homage to him, Absalom reached out his hand, took hold of him, and kissed him. 6 Absalom did this to all the Israelites who came to the king for a settlement. So Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel.
Absalom was not content with being allowed to return to Jerusalem. He asked Joab to come to see him, but twice Joab refused. To get Joab's attention, he set Joab's barley field on fire. Joab then agreed to persuade David to allow Absalom to return to court.
David agreed (14:25-33).
Then Absalom began a systematic campaign to undermine his father. He would rape David’s Concubine, a sign that he can’t protect his harem. He would stand at the palace gate, and when a man came to bring a problem before the king, Absalom would call him aside.
He then would tell the man that it was a waste of time to try to see the king, even though his complaint was a just one. Absalom would then assure the man that should he be king, he would give justice.
He would allow no man to give the traditional bow of respect, but would warmly embrace him like a brother.
Thus, Absalom did to every Israelite who came to the king for judgment; so Absalom stole the hearts of the people of Israel (15:6).

Absalom's Rebellion

2 Sam. 15:7-17:23
After four years, Absalom made his move. He sent word to his supporters to gather at Hebron, David's first capital. He told David he was going to celebrate a feast and received David's blessing on the trip. Once there he had himself proclaimed king. Among those who joined him was Ahithophel, one of David's court advisors (15:7-12).
On hearing the news, David chose to run away rather than to fight his own son. He made plans to leave Jerusalem. He instructed ten of his wives to stay behind to take care of his house, but all of his servants and his personal bodyguards went with him.
 Leaving Jerusalem, David went across the Kidron Valley, which separates the eastern boundary of the city from the Mount of Olives (15:30). As he crossed the mountain, he was joined by Ziba, the servant of Mephibosheth (Jonathan's son), who brought an offering of food and drink, and donkeys for David and his household to ride. Mephibosheth had gone over to Absalom's side (16:1-4).

Absalom entered Jerusalem

One of Absalom's first acts was to have sexual relations with one of David's concubines in full view of the people. This was meant to show that he had taken over his father's kingdom (16:15-23).

Crushing the Rebellion

2 Sam. 17:24-19:8
David stopped when he reached Mahanaim in Transjordan. Mahanaim was located near Penuel, where Jacob was said to have wrestled with the angel. In preparation for the battle, David split his army into three parts, putting a commander over each.
David wanted to lead, but his commanders refused to let him go.
As they left, David asked that they "deal gently" with Absalom (18:1-5). The battle raged in the forest of Ephraim. A patrol spotted Absalom and gave chase. As Absalom's mule ran under an oak, Absalom was caught by the head in a tree branch and left hanging. When Joab heard, he came and ordered his men to kill Absalom.
When they refused, Joab personally killed him, had his body thrown into a pit, and covered it with stones (18:6-18).
When the messengers brought the news to David, he wept loudly, lamenting Absalom's death (18:19-23). When the people heard him lamenting, their shouts over the hard-won victory turned to shamed silence.
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