Introduction to Old Testament Studies: Deuteronomic History - End of David and Solomon

Introduction to Old Testament Studies  •  Sermon  •  Submitted   •  Presented   •  53:46
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End of David’s Reign

1 Kings 1-2 Describes the end of David’s reign. David's sons watched his strength slip away, waiting for him to die.
Abishag a concubine is brought to David and even she cannot stir him. She is sent to keep him warm, and his sons start to plot against him. After Absalom was killed, Adonijah was David's oldest surviving son and successor to the thrown.  No longer was there a prophet with the power and influence of Samuel who could anoint a man and place him on the throne
Adonijah sensing that David would not choose him, decided to take matters into his own hands.
He enlisted help from powerful people:
Joab, the long-time commander of David's army
Abiathar, the priest who had been with David since his days as a fugitive.
 Like Absalom, Adonijah had been pampered and spoiled by his father. He invited many important people to a sacrifice and self-coronation, much the way modern politicians invite prospective voters to a barbecue. He did not invite Nathan, the prophet; Bathsheba, Solomon's mother; Zadok, the priest; Benaiah, the chief of David's bodyguard, nor any of the bodyguards. He especially ignored Solomon, his chief rival for the throne.
Word of Adonijah planned coup set in motion a counter plot by those who supported Solomon. Nathan and Bathsheba plotted together to force the aged king to choose Solomon. Bathsheba was to tell David of Adonijah's plot and then remind David that he had promised the kingship to Solomon. Nathan would then come in and confirm what Bathsheba had said.
Immediate action was taken to ensure that David's wishes were carried out.
Solomon "was placed on David's mule, an animal that no person but the king could ride-and was taken to the Gihon Spring. He was accompanied by Nathan, Zadok, Benaiah, and David's bodyguards. There he was proclaimed King.
Afterward, he was led through the streets of Jerusalem, where the people, seeing that he was David's choice. They filled the streets shouting, "Long live King Solomon!" (1:32-40). Meanwhile, back at Adonijah's party, people began to wonder what all the noise in uptown Jerusalem was about.
A messenger came running in telling them that Solomon was named king. Adonijah, fearing that Solomon would have him killed, went to the great altar where sacrifices were made and remained there.
The altar was a sacred place and one was to be safe from punishment for any crime as long as he did not leave the sacred area. Solomon demanded and got a pledge of loyalty from Adonijah. In return, he promised to let Adonijah live unless some "wickedness" be found in him. Solomon, of course, would determine what that "wickedness" was (1:41-53).
David gave instructions to Solomon about what he should do when David died. After instructing him about spiritual matters (2:1-4), First, he gave instructions about Joab, who had been David's general, and hatchet man, and whose atrocities David either had been unable or unwilling to control. Joab was to be executed. Next, Solomon was urged to treat Barzillaiof Gilead kindly for his help to David during Absalom's rebellion.
Solomon became the first Israelite king to succeed his father (2:5-12).

David’s Reign

Ranks with Moses in Israelite tradition
Had Great Military and Administrative skills
United monarchy
Built on by Solomon
Makes Jerusalem both political and religious center
Establishes the House of David
400 years
Tradition credits many Psalms to David
Teaches us that Israelite Kings are not Deities but representatives of God


Solomon: Riches, Wisdom, and Foolishness (961-922 B.C.E.)
1 Kings 2-4 Establishment of Solomon

Associated with Wisdom

Requests Wisdom
1 Kings 3:1–15 CSB
Solomon made an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt by marrying Pharaoh’s daughter. Solomon brought her to the city of David until he finished building his palace, the Lord’s temple, and the wall surrounding Jerusalem. However, the people were sacrificing on the high places, because until that time a temple for the Lord’s name had not been built. Solomon loved the Lord by walking in the statutes of his father David, but he also sacrificed and burned incense on the high places. The king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there because it was the most famous high place. He offered a thousand burnt offerings on that altar. At Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream at night. God said, “Ask. What should I give you?” And Solomon replied, “You have shown great and faithful love to your servant, my father David, because he walked before you in faithfulness, righteousness, and integrity. You have continued this great and faithful love for him by giving him a son to sit on his throne, as it is today. Lord my God, you have now made your servant king in my father David’s place. Yet I am just a youth with no experience in leadership. Your servant is among your people you have chosen, a people too many to be numbered or counted. So give your servant a receptive heart to judge your people and to discern between good and evil. For who is able to judge this great people of yours?” Now it pleased the Lord that Solomon had requested this. So God said to him, “Because you have requested this and did not ask for long life or riches for yourself, or the death of your enemies, but you asked discernment for yourself to administer justice, I will therefore do what you have asked. I will give you a wise and understanding heart, so that there has never been anyone like you before and never will be again. In addition, I will give you what you did not ask for: both riches and honor, so that no king will be your equal during your entire life. If you walk in my ways and keep my statutes and commands just as your father David did, I will give you a long life.” Then Solomon woke up and realized it had been a dream. He went to Jerusalem, stood before the ark of the Lord’s covenant, and offered burnt offerings and fellowship offerings. Then he held a feast for all his servants.
Lord comes to him and tells him that anything he request will be given to him. He ask for Wisdom. Given wisdom and riches

Wisdom personified

1 Kings 3:16–28 CSB
Then two women who were prostitutes came to the king and stood before him. One woman said, “Please, my lord, this woman and I live in the same house, and I had a baby while she was in the house. On the third day after I gave birth, she also had a baby and we were alone. No one else was with us in the house; just the two of us were there. During the night this woman’s son died because she lay on him. She got up in the middle of the night and took my son from my side while your servant was asleep. She laid him in her arms, and she put her dead son in my arms. When I got up in the morning to nurse my son, I discovered he was dead. That morning, when I looked closely at him I realized that he was not the son I gave birth to.” “No,” the other woman said. “My son is the living one; your son is the dead one.” The first woman said, “No, your son is the dead one; my son is the living one.” So they argued before the king. The king replied, “This woman says, ‘This is my son who is alive, and your son is dead,’ but that woman says, ‘No, your son is dead, and my son is alive.’ ” The king continued, “Bring me a sword.” So they brought the sword to the king. And the king said, “Cut the living boy in two and give half to one and half to the other.” The woman whose son was alive spoke to the king because she felt great compassion for her son. “My lord, give her the living baby,” she said, “but please don’t have him killed!” But the other one said, “He will not be mine or yours. Cut him in two!” The king responded, “Give the living baby to the first woman, and don’t kill him. She is his mother.” All Israel heard about the judgment the king had given, and they stood in awe of the king because they saw that God’s wisdom was in him to carry out justice.
2 Women who claimed the same child. After the Women had argued before him, Solomon ordered the child cut into two pieces, one piece to be given to each woman. One woman agreed, but the true mother asked Solomon to spare the child and to give it to the other woman. Solomon awarded the child to its true mother (3:16-28).

Wisdom Accounted

Solomon as wiser than all the eastern wise men. He was a speaker and collector of proverbs, a zoologist and a biologist, and a marvel to all who heard him (4:29-34). The queen of Sheba came from North Africa (Ethiopia) to marvel at his wisdom.
Ethiopian tradition has it that she carried away more than wisdom, since later Ethiopian rulers were called in part, "The Lion of Judah" (1 Kings 10:1-10). According to legend, the first Emperor of Ethiopia, Menilik, was the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, and he took the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia, where many believe it still resides
3000 proverbs accounted to him (proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon), 1005 Songs. Knew much about Plants and animals

Solomon the Organizer

He will redistrict his kingdom for two purposes
Taxation – Even divide the land for support and taxation
Breaking down old tribal distinctions - seeking to build the country
1st succeeded, 2nd failed

Solomon the Builder

Relative peace and security inherited from his father’s rule allowed Solomon freedom to enter into major building programs.


From plans of David – 1 Chronicles 28. While David built an empire by conquest. Solomon covered it with buildings.
Temple - 1 Kings 5-7
Israel provides
One month out of every three months people work on the temple, Without pay. Hiram of Tyre gives wood and Skilled workmen. Hiram wants food.
1 Kings 6 and 7 -Description of the building.

Holy of Holies

which was a perfect cube-thirty feet long, thirty feet wide, and thirty feet high. Ark of The Covenant

Holy Place

sixty feet long and thirty feet wide. contained three principal items: the altar for incense, the seven branched lamp stand. In later times, the lamp stand became a seven-branched candlestick called the Menorah And the table for the sacred bread (shew bread or bread of the presence).

porch or Vestibule

fifteen feet deep and thirty feet wide


Altar made out of uncut stone. cut stone associated with false worship. The Stones named Jachin and Boaz, stood to the north and south of the entrance of the Temple. Their meaning and purpose are unknown (7:15-22)

Bronze sea

set on the back of twelve bronze bulls. 10000 Gallons of water. May have been a reminder of the watery chaos mentioned in the Creation story and of how God overcame it to create the world (7:23-26).
Temple shows Phoenician influence but no graven image of the Deity. Temple is based on David’s plans for a temple.
7 year process

2 Purposes

Temple Serves 2 purposes
Ark of The Covenant will be housed
King appoints the high priest
Islamic mosques-the Dome of the Rock and the el Asqa Mosque is located where the temple was thought to be located. As a result, archaeological work on the Temple Mount is forbidden.

Dedication of the Temple

1 Kings 8
Dedication of the temple. part of the dedication was a seven day feast coincided with the feast of tabernacle. Ark is in the temple permanently

The Line of David Continued

1 Kings 9
After the dedication of the Temple, the LORD appeared to Solomon. The promise of the continuance of David's line was made, But it was to be based on faithfulness to the LORD. If Solomon and those who followed him turned away from the LORD, judgment would come upon Israel.

Other building projects

Solomon will build his Palace in 13 years. He will fortify the cities. He will Develop an army and merchant fleet.
Time of Solomon considered to be the Golden age of Israel. Time of great prosperity, Monumental building projects and cultural improvements

Burdens of the Golden age

Fiscal problems
Few natural resources
Cost outran Income
Run away National budget
Had to give away land to pay for work
To run the state programs
1 Kings 9:23 – 550 supervisors of labor
Forced labor
Inner Transformation
Solomon’s Harem
700 wives, 300 Concubines
Solomon made accommodations for the false worship practices of his harem
Seeds of Dissent
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