Types and Shadows  •  Sermon  •  Submitted   •  Presented   •  34:33
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God’s Promise

Every year on July 4 our country celebrates our independence from Britain.
We all celebrate in similar ways.
There are fireworks.
There are BBQ’s.
There are hamburgers.
Hot Dogs.
For some there’s some drinking.
Flag waving.
Some partying.
This is a tradition that for many highlights our identity as a Nation.
We love Independence.
We love those who fought for our freedom.
We love celebrating the freedom we have from oppression.
None of us alive fought during the revolutionary war, but we still look back at it as a watershed moment of our country.
That war solidified us as a nation.
July 4, 1776 was the Day that is remembered as the Day that we Declared our Independence.
Our nation is marked by the things that we celebrate.
Veterans day
Memorial Day
New Year’s Day
And So on and so forth.
The reality is that the things that we remember and the things we celebrate help to create and solidify our identity.
This is not just true for us as Americans, this is true for most people across time.
The Scripture we are going to cover today sets up one of those events for the Israelite people.
Today we are going to talk about the passover event.
So if you have your bible open it to Exodus 12.
Now to set the stage for this event lets look at what’s happened.
God’s people have been in captivity and Slavery in Egypt for over 400 years.
They were faced with a difficulty.
They were Groaning and crying out to God for help.
Exodus 2:23-25 “23 During those many days the king of Egypt died, and the people of Israel groaned because of their slavery and cried out for help. Their cry for rescue from slavery came up to God. 24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. 25 God saw the people of Israel—and God knew.”
God hears their cries and raises up Moses to deliver them out of the Hands of Pharaoh.
Pharoah is offered opportunities to release them without any consequences, but he refuses.
So God is going to send on him 10 plagues to prompt Pharoah to release God’s People.
We briefly went over them last week but let’s briefly list them again.
Nile River turns to Blood: 7:20-21
An over abundance of Frogs: 8:3-6
Swarms of Gnats: 8:16-17
Infestation of Flies: 8:24
Pestilence: 9:3-6
Boils on Humans and Animals: 9:8-10
Heavy Hail and Fire destroying plants, animals, and people: 9:18-33
Massive Swarm of Locusts: 10:4-15
3 Days of Darkness: 10:21-23
Those are the first Nine, But the Final Plague is what we are going to focus on this morning:
Death of the First Born: 11:4-5
The 10th plague is the pinnacle of God’s judgement on Egypt.
Pharaoh had ample opportunities to recognize who God is, but his arrogance, ego, and pride stood in the way.
Pharaoh thought of himself as a god and was worshipped as such by his people.
With that worship comes an arrogance that is difficult to overcome.
He will not bend the knee to the True God, so he will be made to bend it.
So God has judged Egypt and Pharaoh in a way that marks him out as the One true God.
Remember the story of Exodus begins with Pharaoh's edict to murder all the first born Males of the Israelites.
But this isn’t pettiness on God’s behalf.
God was bringing judgement on a nation and ruler steeped in evil and wickedness.
One Commentator put it this way:
Exodus 4. The Tenth Plague Strikes: Death of the Firstborn (12:29–30)

This was not a case, however, of returning evil for evil. It was a case of divine retribution, justice meted out to those who deserved it, a judgment against an entire society and their absurd religious beliefs that led them to practice the horrible treatment they had given the Israelites in the past, thinking it appropriate. Evil for evil would have been accomplished if the Israelites themselves had figured out a way to kill Egyptian babies after having come to a position of power over their former oppressors. God, not Israelites, did this killing of the Egyptian firstborn, however, and did so within the bounds of his righteous judgment against evildoers

This judgement of the death of the first born is going to come over the whole nation. Including the Israelites that lived there.
Sin is destructive. Sin deserves punishment.
All people have sinned and fallen short of God’s glory and perfection.
So judgement from God can and should rain down on all humanity.
But God is not just wrathful against sin, he is also gracious.
So before the judgement comes God gives instructions for how the Israelites can avoid the consequences of sin.
He gives the initial instructions to both Moses and Aaron.
Exodus 12:1–11 ESV
1 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 2 “This month shall be for you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year for you. 3 Tell all the congregation of Israel that on the tenth day of this month every man shall take a lamb according to their fathers’ houses, a lamb for a household. 4 And if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his nearest neighbor shall take according to the number of persons; according to what each can eat you shall make your count for the lamb. 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male a year old. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats, 6 and you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month, when the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill their lambs at twilight. 7 “Then they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which they eat it. 8 They shall eat the flesh that night, roasted on the fire; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it. 9 Do not eat any of it raw or boiled in water, but roasted, its head with its legs and its inner parts. 10 And you shall let none of it remain until the morning; anything that remains until the morning you shall burn. 11 In this manner you shall eat it: with your belt fastened, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. And you shall eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover.


God marks this occasion as the beginning of the Israelite Calendar.
God is now fulfilling the promise he made to Abraham to make a great nation for himself.
And this nation is to begin their year remembering this miraculous and gracious event in their lives.
When the God of the universe saved them from slavery and bondage.
They were to know that God was linking their measure of time to His calling on their lives.
They are going to begin their year celebrating God’s deliverance.
They are going to begin their year remembering how God had saved them.
They are going to begin their year with a sacrifice and a feast.
Because at the heart of the festival was the feast of the lamb.
This is a holiday that is specific in nature.
It can not be thrown together quickly or haphazardly.
God was deliberate in telling the Israelites that they are to take time and reflect on what God has done and is doing.
This is more like our holidays of Thanksgiving and Christmas.
If you celebrate these with a meal they are’t just thrown together.
In fact, some people take weeks or even months to think about and prepare a meal for the family.
This is what God commands here.
On the 10th of the month, Every man is to go and find a lamb for their household.
This lamb is to be carefully examined and thoroughly scrutinized so that it is perfect.
No blemish. No mark. No defect.
Why is God this specific in the perfection of the lamb?
Because “a defective gift is an insult to the recipient”
God desires not their second or third best lamb, but their best.
He demands perfection.
This lamb must also be at least a year old.
Meaning that it has to be fully grown.
So the Israelite men are to go and choose a perfect year old male lamb to be offered as a sacrifice to God.
They are to choose the lamb on the 10th day, and then the lamb will come live in their home for 4 days before it is sacrificed.
Sometimes, we can get confused or bothered by what God asks of his people.
But remember, God can set the requirements and boundaries by which he desires to be worshipped.
And in fact he does this throughout the Old and New Testament.
God Dictates what is good, right, and proper when it comes to worshipping him.
That’s what he is doing here with the choosing of the Lamb.
So on the 14th day of the month, the lamb is going to be slaughtered by the head of the household.
Then they are going to take that blood and and apply it to the door frame.
Both doorposts and on the section above the door.
They are then going to roast the lamb and only eat enough to be satisfied.
They aren’t going to gorge themselves as many do on thanksgiving, because they have to be ready to move.
They have to be ready for the deliverance of the Lord.
So as they have dinner, God commands them to be fully dressed, cloak, belt, sandals, and with their staffs in hand.
They are to eat quickly and be ready to leave for the Lord’s Judgement will come at a moments notice.
So what is God’s Judgement going to look like?
Exodus 12:12–14 ESV
12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the Lord. 13 The blood shall be a sign for you, on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt. 14 “This day shall be for you a memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord; throughout your generations, as a statute forever, you shall keep it as a feast.

God’s Plan

God reveals to Moses and Aaron the plan.
He is going to pronounce judgement on all the land of Egypt.
No one or nothing is going to be spared.
All first born of all living things will be struck down.
Livestock. Children.
From the greatest to the least none shall escape the judgement of God except those protected by the blood of the lamb on their door posts.
God is again relaying that he is lord over all.
He is executing judgement on the false gods worshipped by the Egyptians.
He is judging Egypt according to its wickedness.
He has already undone the country through the Nine plagues with no repentance or acknowledgement that he is the Lord.
So as a punishment for their sin he is going to judge them.
But he is also going to extend grace to those that believe and trust him.
There are those who heard the Lord. Respond to his message of deliverance and follow his instructions.
They are saved from Judgement.
If they didn’t obey his instructions they would be under the same judgement as the rest of the country.
And this is a day that is to be remembered annually.
They are to worship and memorialize this day as their day of deliverance.
And to this day, people still celebrate the passover.
They still celebrate God’s miraculous salvation.
The Passover Feast is one of the big Three celebrated by the Jewish people still today.
Now, up to this point the only people who have heard these instructions are Moses and Aaron, so they need to take them to the people.
And we read about the retelling of the instructions in
Exodus 12:21–28 ESV
21 Then Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go and select lambs for yourselves according to your clans, and kill the Passover lamb. 22 Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. None of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning. 23 For the Lord will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the Lord will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you. 24 You shall observe this rite as a statute for you and for your sons forever. 25 And when you come to the land that the Lord will give you, as he has promised, you shall keep this service. 26 And when your children say to you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’ 27 you shall say, ‘It is the sacrifice of the Lord’s Passover, for he passed over the houses of the people of Israel in Egypt, when he struck the Egyptians but spared our houses.’ ” And the people bowed their heads and worshiped. 28 Then the people of Israel went and did so; as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

Sacrificial Obedience

Moses relays the instructions to the people.
But he extends the instructions about remembrance of the feast.
He wants to make sure that this action done by God does not escape the memories of God’s people.
Every Generation must remember the Lord’s Passover.
This is essential to the identity of God’s people.
And when Curious kids ask why do we do this
The fathers remind them of What God Did.
He saved his people from his judgement.
Though they deserved to face his judgement and wrath he provided a way to salvation.
And God deserves worship because of who he is and what he did.
What he does.
And how do to the people respond to God’s command
Ex 12:28 “28 Then the people of Israel went and did so; as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.”
They were obedient.
They followed God’s instructions and were saved.
Exodus 12:29–38 ESV
29 At midnight the Lord struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock. 30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians. And there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where someone was not dead. 31 Then he summoned Moses and Aaron by night and said, “Up, go out from among my people, both you and the people of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as you have said. 32 Take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone, and bless me also!” 33 The Egyptians were urgent with the people to send them out of the land in haste. For they said, “We shall all be dead.” 34 So the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading bowls being bound up in their cloaks on their shoulders. 35 The people of Israel had also done as Moses told them, for they had asked the Egyptians for silver and gold jewelry and for clothing. 36 And the Lord had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. Thus they plundered the Egyptians. 37 And the people of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children. 38 A mixed multitude also went up with them, and very much livestock, both flocks and herds.

Judgement Comes

Dinner is done, the people are ready and at Midnight, the Lord comes and delivers the Judgement promised.
All of the firstborn in Egypt are struck down.
From the greatest to the least, Pharaoh to Prisoner. From Man to Beast.
And in the middle of the night Pharoah calls for Moses and Aaron to stand before him.
And he commands that they leave.
After all the times that he told them that they couldn’t leave.
He now begs them to flee.
This is ironic because earlier Pharaoh told them that he would never see their face again and if he did then Moses would Die
Ex 10:28 “28 Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me; take care never to see my face again, for on the day you see my face you shall die.””
And here Pharoah summoned Moses to plead with him to leave.
Because judgment had come down.
Not only did God free the Israelites from Slavery, but he also provided for them.
On their way out of Egypt the Egyptians gave the Israelites everything that they asked for.
The journey ahead of them was going to be long and expensive.
So God provided for them through the hands of their captors.
The Israelites got the spoils of war, the plunder, without ever having to lift a finger against one of the greatest nations of their Day.
600,000 men, not including women and children fled Egypt that day.
But not only did Israelites leave, but v. 38 tells us that there was a mixed multitude that left.
Some of the Egyptians had seen the work of God and his power to save and judge.
So they decided that they wanted to be on his side.
They wanted to be on his team.
They wanted to be with his people.
As they are saved and escape bondage, they are reminded once again of the significance of this event.
They are prompted to remember it from generation to generation.
Exodus 12:40–51 ESV
40 The time that the people of Israel lived in Egypt was 430 years. 41 At the end of 430 years, on that very day, all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. 42 It was a night of watching by the Lord, to bring them out of the land of Egypt; so this same night is a night of watching kept to the Lord by all the people of Israel throughout their generations. 43 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the statute of the Passover: no foreigner shall eat of it, 44 but every slave that is bought for money may eat of it after you have circumcised him. 45 No foreigner or hired worker may eat of it. 46 It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the flesh outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones. 47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 48 If a stranger shall sojourn with you and would keep the Passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised. Then he may come near and keep it; he shall be as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it. 49 There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger who sojourns among you.” 50 All the people of Israel did just as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. 51 And on that very day the Lord brought the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.

Restrictions and Remembrance

God does lay out the fact that Passover is solely for his people to remember his grace on them.
But there are restrictions on the celebration of this feast.
It is only for those that belong to God.
No one is allowed to celebrate it unless they are consecrated or set apart in worship to Yahweh.
This is done by a commitment to God through the act of circumcision.
The reason for this is that the feast is significant for God’s people and God’s people alone.
It would be a shame and travesty if someone partakes of the feast without recognizing and worshipping God.
A sign of a devotee to God in the OT is the sign of circumcision.
This mark set people apart and marked them out as worshippers of God.
And God’s people upheld this command and restriction.
Only those of Jewish Descent or those that have proselytized can partake in the Passover feast.
People still celebrate Passover each year.
From Generation to Generation.
And I bet you are wondering how this gets us to Jesus?
The first thing we will see is found in
John 1:29 ESV
29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!

Jesus, Our Passover Lamb

John the Baptist first sees Jesus and Proclaims him to be the Lamb of God.
Upon Seeing Jesus, recognizing the fulfillment of scripture, John proclaims that Jesus is the Lamb of God.
Not just once but on the next day in Jn 1:36 “36 and he looked at Jesus as he walked by and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God!”” He declared the same truth.
Jesus was described as a lamb.
This is important for the Theology of the Gospels b/c Jesus was sacrificed during the Passover event.
So Jesus was offered up as a sacrifice during the feast to celebrate God’s Deliverance of his People.
Also, God commands in Exod 12:46 that none of the lambs bones are to be broken.
In The Gospels, we read that to speed along crucifixion the soldiers would break the legs of those crucified.
John 19:32-33 “32 So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with him. 33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs.”
Jn 19:36 “36 For these things took place that the Scripture might be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken.””
Also, In Deut16:5-6 we read that the Passover Sacrifice had to take place in the land that God gave his people.
In this case, Jerusalem.
And Where did Jesus’ Sacrifice take place?
In Jerusalem.
In 1 Cor 5:7, Paul even Calls Jesus our passover lamb.
1 Peter 1:15 tells Jesus was perfect, spotless, without blemish.
Jesus is our perfect, spotless, blameless lamb that was sacrificed on our behalf so that God’s judgement could passover us.
Here the reality, they Jewish people had to celebrate this ceremony each and every year.
But this was a memorial.
They had other holidays and feasts that they celebrated to cleanse them of their sins.
But they had to continue to do them year after year b/c the blood of an actual lamb was only a symbol of the true sacrifice that needed to be made.
Hebrews 10:4 tells us: “4 For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.”
But the writer of hebrews continues and states:
Hebrews 10:10–14 ESV
10 And by that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 11 And every priest stands daily at his service, offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. 12 But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, 13 waiting from that time until his enemies should be made a footstool for his feet. 14 For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are being sanctified.

Jesus, Our Passover Lamb

Now why is this important?
Because we are sinful creatures.
We continually rebel against God.
We continue to disobey God’s commands.
And as rebellious disobedient sinful people we deserve death and judgment.
To avoid death and judgement, Christ died so that we can be made alive.
So that we could be restored.
So that we could be set free.
We can be delivered from the domain of darkness, bondage to sin, and imminent death through the blood of the lamb that was sacrificed to serve as our passover lamb.
The lamb imagery is used all over the NT for Jesus.
It’s because he is the anchor and root of our salvation.
Because of his blood sacrifice we can be passed over by God’s judgement.
Because of his willingness to die he is worthy of our worship and praise.
That’s What we see in Rev 5:11-13
Revelation 5:11–13 ESV
11 Then I looked, and I heard around the throne and the living creatures and the elders the voice of many angels, numbering myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands, 12 saying with a loud voice, “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing!” 13 And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, saying, “To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!”
So we each have a choice.
We can choose to ignore the grace and mercy extended to us through Jesus or we can bow down and worship the Lamb that was slain.
Today is the day for you to make that choice.
Choose to worship, or choose destruction and judgement.
This morning we are going to participate in the Lord’s Supper.
I thought it would be fitting considering what we learned this morning.
But much like only those who Trusted God in the OT could participate in the Passover Feast, The Lord’s supper is only for those that follow after Jesus.
If you are not a follower of Jesus, I would ask that you refrain from taking the elements.
I want you to know that there is something much greater that you can have than just some bread and juice.
This morning you can have forgiveness of your sins.
You can have a change of heart.
You can embrace Jesus as your Lord and Savior.
Lord’s Supper
Matthew 26:26–29 ESV
26 Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.” 27 And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all of you, 28 for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29 I tell you I will not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”
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