Biblical Covenants: Davidic
Cut/Made with Adam
Established with Noah
Cut with Israel at Sinai
Who is David?
Who is David?
Youngest son to Jesse
Part of tribe of Judah
Great-grandmother was Ruth (Ruth 4:22)
Shepherd and musician
Known in his youth for his faithful courage in facing Goliath, which erupted his fame nationally and before the King Saul. Saul quickly grew jealous and threatened by the fame of this young man. (1 Sam 18:9)
After many attempts by Saul to kill David, David evades them all and eventually will be crowned king after Saul’s death.
Who is King?
Who is King?
1 Now when the king lived in his house and the Lord had given him rest from all his surrounding enemies, 2 the king said to Nathan the prophet, “See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwells in a tent.” 3 And Nathan said to the king, “Go, do all that is in your heart, for the Lord is with you.”
David wants to honor the Lord for blessing him as King and his desire is to build the Lord a temple but the Lord does not allow that to happen. Instead, as we read the story, he allows David’s son Solomon to build him the temple instead.
We first need to see that not only was it in David’s heart to build the temple but the prophet Nathan, gave him the green light to do so. A prophet accompanied the king of Israel to serve as a mouthpiece between God and the earthly king. Both Nathan and David made a grave and yet noble mistake here…they did not seek approval before the Lord for this house to be build. This was an important lesson to learn for David, one that he knew throughout his campaigns of war.
Now as King of Israel, he still was not King of all, he was a servant of the Lord. Ronald Youngblood makes the note of the change of title for David. In verse 1-3 he is referenced as King while in verse 4 he is called “My servant.” Although servant is an honorable title only given to Moses, the change indicates the upcoming rebuke of David and Nathan.
4 But that same night the word of the Lord came to Nathan, 5 “Go and tell my servant David, ‘Thus says the Lord: Would you build me a house to dwell in? 6 I have not lived in a house since the day I brought up the people of Israel from Egypt to this day, but I have been moving about in a tent for my dwelling. 7 In all places where I have moved with all the people of Israel, did I speak a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd my people Israel, saying, “Why have you not built me a house of cedar?” ’
In reflecting on v 4-7, the Lord is clearly redirecting the presumptive decisions of Israel’s king as to what He should do for the Lord. The Lord quickly reminds David that He has not requested a house throughout his wanderings with His people in the wilderness and therefore David should not move forward with that which the Lord has not requested of him.
This shows the utter sovereignty of the Lord over all earthly kings and rulers of all of history. Even his own appointed kings over his people were not to rule autonomously from the direction of the Lord. Instead, they were to reflect a submission to the Lord for the people.
Remember that when Israel wanted a king for themselves, they wanted one like the other nations of the world. Their request was not in defiance of the Lord only because the people were Israel were seeking to “be like the others nations.” The big reason this was an offense to God is because they sought a earthly king that would supercede their dependence upon the Lord as their true sovereign ruler.
The Lord actually commanded Israel regarding kings in the promised land in Deut 17:14-20 (Turn in your Bibles)
We see then how the monarchy was supposed to be established in Israel. After Israel suffered many defeats under Saul, God gave Israel his choice for king and they experienced great prosperity because of God’s favor. 2 Sam 7:1 is a summary of God’s provision by giving them security from their enemies in the promised land, just as He had promised to Abraham and to Israel at Sinai.
Notice also how the King, was commanded to take the word of God -the Torah rule by it in such a way that He is serving a priestly function by pointing the nations to submit to Yahweh in the way in which the King of Israel rules.
Consider then your plans in relation to the Lord’s plans for you. They may be well-meaning plans and yet, they have not been properly vetted by the Lord. Are you seeking his will for your life or are your plans your plans in hopes that the Lord gets behind them? If he is truly King over your life, are you willing to surrender to those man-made plans if the Lord takes you in a different direction.
As you consider those questions, be reminded that the Lord was with David as a king just as he was with Israel as they wandered through the wilderness. Whatever the Lord calls you to accomplish, He condescends to His people to be with them. He is not living in some high palace far away. Instead He is near to those who seek him.
Similarly, he is not a magic 8-ball that you seek to get quick answers to the age old questions- “whats your will for my life? Shake and turn over for answer. Oops I don’t like that answer try again.
Instead, He desires relationship through covenant which we have learned is not an agreement based on terms its a relationship of love, loyalty, and faithfulness.
What are His promises?
What are His promises?
A house and a house 9b-
ALL OF GRACE:
First, God reminds David that his rule as king and his relationship with the Lord is all of grace.
2 Samuel 7:8–9 (ESV)
8 Now, therefore, thus you shall say to my servant David, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts, I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, that you should be prince over my people Israel. 9 And I have been with you wherever you went and have cut off all your enemies from before you.
David started as an unknown shepherd boy and the Lord elevated him to king over Israel and a priest to the nations of God’s great glory. Just as Abraham would be a blessing to the nations, and Israel, as God’s Son would serve to bring the nations to the Lord, so David also as King is to draw the nations to YHWH by his rule over Israel.
But he became to become rule from obscurity because the Lord turned this love upon David to make him king over all his people. You may remember that when Samuel arrived at the city of Jesse, which was Bethlehem, he made a sacrifice with Jesse and his sons. All 7 of the sons passed before Samuel but not were who God had called to be King. The humility theme is thick here for David was not even invited to the sacrifice when the others sons were called. It contrasts the lowliness of David beginnings to the place in which the Lord brought him.
The lowly shepherd, from the lowly clan of Judah in the lowly town of Bethlehem is anointed King over all Israel is only a story that the Lord could providentially script in his divine plan. He recounts the beauty of God’s grace for all his undeserving people whereby we were once rebels and now made regals under the Lord. We were once slaves and now sons and daughters of the most high king.
In David’s repsonse of praise to the covenant that we are about to look at, He prays,
2 Samuel 7:18–23 (ESV)
18 Then King David went in and sat before the Lord and said, “Who am I, O Lord God, and what is my house, that you have brought me thus far? 19 And yet this was a small thing in your eyes, O Lord God. You have spoken also of your servant’s house for a great while to come, and this is instruction for mankind, O Lord God! 20 And what more can David say to you? For you know your servant, O Lord God!
21 Because of your promise, and according to your own heart, you have brought about all this greatness, to make your servant know it. 22 Therefore you are great, O Lord God. For there is none like you, and there is no God besides you, according to all that we have heard with our ears. 23 And who is like your people Israel, the one nation on earth whom God went to redeem to be his people, making himself a name and doing for them great and awesome things by driving out before your people, whom you redeemed for yourself from Egypt, a nation and its gods?
Are you thankful like David for the muck and mire that the Lord rescued you from when you were saved in Jesus name and by the redemption extended to you. Do you praise him like David praised the Lord in the psalms that he wrote. 73 psalms were written by the king and of those many were psalms of thanksgiving to all the love and faithfulness the Lord extended towards David. If you don’t, let me encourage you to incorporate detailed prayers of thanksgiving to the Lord. Be specific as to all that He has done for you, your family, and throughout all history. This is demonstrated in the Scriptures by GOd’s people for all of us to replicate in our lives.
THE PROMISES OF GRACE
Although the word covenant is never used in these passages, there is still covenantal language used towards David. Let’s look at v 9-11
2 Samuel 7:9–11 (ESV)
...And I will make for you a great name, like the name of the great ones of the earth. 10 And I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them, so that they may dwell in their own place and be disturbed no more. And violent men shall afflict them no more, as formerly, 11 from the time that I appointed judges over my people Israel. And I will give you rest from all your enemies. Moreover, the Lord declares to you that the Lord will make you a house.
The covenant that the Lord is making with David hinges upon the play on words “house.” This covenant is about a house and a house. David wants to build the Lord a permanent structure where the ark of the covenant can dwell which represents where the Lord’s presence will reside. But the Lord alters that plan of David’s.
Instead, the Lord reveals his plan for David and it includes a house. His house is not a physical structure, but an eternal lineage. His home would be built by the Lord, and it would not consist of bricks and morter, but it will consist in rest and reign.
The verses in 9-11 are promises to David that saw fulfillment in the fact that the kings who reigned over God’s people came from the line of David. His reign over God’s kingdom extended through his sons so that the kings who bore the lineage of David were considered great men in the eyes of the people. As the Lord established in the Torah, it was the Lord’s kingdom whereby he appointed earthly kings to rule under him and subservient to him.
Unfortunately, they fall short in the eyes of God because they were wicked kings who led the people astray into idolatry and wickedness. They were not kings who properly portrayed YHWH in a good light and they did not bring the nations to Him.
As kings, they forsook the call of Israel’s kings to put their relationship with the Lord first, living their lives according to the Torah as I read earlier from Deuteronomy 17. They forsook honoring the Lord by obeying his word and therefore their reigns were shortened and for many, their deaths were swift.
Regardless, the monarchy of Israel is established more faithfully with David as the most blessed among Israel’s kings. The kingdom flourished under him as the Lord provided great fruitfulness as He promised. The rest that the Lord promised was fulfilled in David’s days as they conquered for a time the nations of Canaan and completed what was started by Joshua. This is stated in v 1 of 2 Samuel in summary fashion.
But the Lord continues in establishing his covenant with David,
12 When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, 15 but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before you. 16 And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever.’ ” 17 In accordance with all these words, and in accordance with all this vision, Nathan spoke to David.
These verses ask the final question:
How are they fulfilled?
How are they fulfilled?
They are fulfilled in a way that we might not expect!
The Lord carries forth his promises so that some of them are fulfilled in Solomon but they are ultimately fulfilled in Christ. Solomon builds the temple for the Lord, not David. While David is known as the great Philistine conqueror and the great king of Israel, Solomon is known for his great wisdom and his faithful construction of the temple. A design of David’s that fell on his son because David did not seek the direction of His lord.
It shows us that the plans of the Lord are not truly understood by mere men. They are a mystery to us and only in his timing are they revealed. When we do understand them, it is not always what we expected them to be.
We can see the progression of sonship through the covenants as it is most clearly described in verse 14. Again, the idea of progressive revelation allows us to see glimpses in the creation covenant with mankind made in God’s image just as a son is made in his Father’s image. Then with Abraham and with Israel, the components of sonship come closer into view, with Israel even being referred to as the Lord’s son when compared to Pharaohs son in Egypt. Here the words are clearly spoken as a part of the Davidic covenant with even greater clarity.
The Lord would love the kings of Israel like sons just as he loved Israel like his son. But while the Father would cast an insurmountable net of love, the people of God would reject that love and rebel from his loving kindness. That sets up the need for an obedient son, who is also an obedient king who would rule for all eternity. This is how all the covenants and all of God’s word find their fulfillment in the Lord Jesus.
As a child born in Bethlehem, in the city of David, born as both God and man, Jesus was born sinless by the power of the Holy Spirit, he retained a sinless and humble on the earth and yet he was kingly, worshipped by the angels, honored by the Father. He would be tempted in every way and yet he remained obedient to the father so that sinners could be clothed with his righteousness. He was crucified as a criminal although no laws were broken and he was buried in a borrowed tomb because his royalty was rejected by his people. Little did the Jews know that on that cross, the Son’s blood was shed, the life was given, the Lamb blood was applied to the doorposts, and wrath of God passover his people and fell upon him.
But in a final act of redemption, to show the domain of darkness that they lost the battle, he triumphed over them by raising up from death, possessing new life, being the firstfruits of his people who also will be raised to new life in His name. He was witnessed by many for 40 days after his resurrection and then he ascended to his throne to be the better David ruling by His Father’s side until his return.
1 Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. 3 He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs. 5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”? Or again, “I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son”?
Do you trust fully in the Son of God for the salvation of your souls?